[Inherited kidney stones: A nephrology center experience].Prog Urol 2019PU
Genetic factors must be considered in etiological diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. The aim of this study was to determine clinical, metabolic characteristics and the progression of hereditary urinary lithiasis in our patients.
A retrospective study was conducted between 2008 and 2018 and 60 patients were included. Patients were referred to our department from pediatrics departments to be followed-up in adulthood in 9 cases, for etiological investigation in 42 cases and for chronic renal failure in 9 cases.
Thirty-five men and twenty-five women were enrolled in this study with a M/F sex ratio equal to 1.4. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of the hereditary character of the urinary lithiasis was 28.6years (3months-63years). The average delay between the onset of the lithiasis disease and the etiological diagnosis was 8years (0-42years). We noted 31 cases of cystinuria, 18 cases of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 with two mutations (I244T in 14 cases, 33-34 Insc in 23 cases) and 11 cases of renal tubulopathy. Fourteen patients were affected with chronic renal failure, of which five were in the end-stage renal disease. Crystalluria was positive in 62% of cases. The morpho-constitutional analysis of stones was performed in 37 cases and it contributed to the diagnosis in 29 cases. After an average follow-up of 16years, we noted normal renal function in 42 cases, chronic renal failure in 7 cases, hemodialysis in 10 cases all with primary hyperoxaluria and transplantation in 1 case.
The etiological diagnosis of hereditary urinary lithiasis in our study was made with considerable delay. Cystinuria was the most frequent etiology and primary hyperoxaluria was the most serious affection.
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