Risk factors of conversion in laparoscopic cholecystectomies for lithiasic acute cholecystitis. Results of a monocentric study and review of the literature.Tunis Med 2019; 97(2):344-351TM
Nowadays, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the management of lithiasic acute cholecystitis. However, the rate of conversion to laparotomy remains considerable, greater than that of uncomplicated lithiasis. Some factors, related to the patient, the disease or the surgeon, are associated with a high risk of conversion.
To identify the factors associated with a significant risk of conversion in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.
Between January 2011 and December 2015, all patients operated on for acute cholecystitis at the Department of General and Digestive Surgery of Farhat Hached University Hospital of Sousse - Tunisia were divided into two groups: A for the laparoscopic approach and B for conversion. We compared the two groups.
The conversion rate was 21.9% (43 patients). At the end of this work, we found that the conversion rate was significantly increased for males (p = 0.044), ulcerative disease (p = 0.004), smokers (p = 0.007), ASA score = II (p = 0.005), abdominal guarding (p = 0.001), fever (p = 0.001), perivesicular effusion on ultrasound (p = 0.041), ultrasound Murphy's sign (p = 0.023), delayed cholecystectomy (p = 0.038), perivascular adhesions (p <10-3) and gangrenous cholecystitis (p = 0.009).
The conversion is sometimes badly perceived by the surgeon. However, it should in no way be considered a failure, but rather a change of strategy to ensure patient safety. Conversion should not be delayed, especially as risk factors have been identified.