Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Implicit learning of artificial grammatical structures after inferior frontal cortex lesions.
PLoS One 2019; 14(9):e0222385Plos

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Previous research associated the left inferior frontal cortex with implicit structure learning. The present study tested patients with lesions encompassing the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG; including Brodmann areas 44 and 45) to further investigate this cognitive function, notably by using non-verbal material, implicit investigation methods, and by enhancing potential remaining function via dynamic attending. Patients and healthy matched controls were exposed to an artificial pitch grammar in an implicit learning paradigm to circumvent the potential influence of impaired language processing.

METHODS

Patients and healthy controls listened to pitch sequences generated within a finite-state grammar (exposure phase) and then performed a categorization task on new pitch sequences (test phase). Participants were not informed about the underlying grammar in either the exposure phase or the test phase. Furthermore, the pitch structures were presented in a highly regular temporal context as the beneficial impact of temporal regularity (e.g. meter) in learning and perception has been previously reported. Based on the Dynamic Attending Theory (DAT), we hypothesized that a temporally regular context helps developing temporal expectations that, in turn, facilitate event perception, and thus benefit artificial grammar learning.

RESULTS

Electroencephalography results suggest preserved artificial grammar learning of pitch structures in patients and healthy controls. For both groups, analyses of event-related potentials revealed a larger early negativity (100-200 msec post-stimulus onset) in response to ungrammatical than grammatical pitch sequence events.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that (i) the LIFG does not play an exclusive role in the implicit learning of artificial pitch grammars, and (ii) the use of non-verbal material and an implicit task reveals cognitive capacities that remain intact despite lesions to the LIFG. These results provide grounds for training and rehabilitation, that is, learning of non-verbal grammars that may impact the relearning of verbal grammars.

Authors+Show Affiliations

CNRS, UMR5292, INSERM, U1028, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Auditory Cognition and Psychoacoustics Team, Lyon, France. University Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.Language and Aphasia Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.Dept. of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany. Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dept. of Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dept. of Psychopharmacology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.CNRS, UMR5292, INSERM, U1028, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Auditory Cognition and Psychoacoustics Team, Lyon, France. University Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31539390

Citation

Jarret, Tatiana, et al. "Implicit Learning of Artificial Grammatical Structures After Inferior Frontal Cortex Lesions." PloS One, vol. 14, no. 9, 2019, pp. e0222385.
Jarret T, Stockert A, Kotz SA, et al. Implicit learning of artificial grammatical structures after inferior frontal cortex lesions. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(9):e0222385.
Jarret, T., Stockert, A., Kotz, S. A., & Tillmann, B. (2019). Implicit learning of artificial grammatical structures after inferior frontal cortex lesions. PloS One, 14(9), pp. e0222385. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222385.
Jarret T, et al. Implicit Learning of Artificial Grammatical Structures After Inferior Frontal Cortex Lesions. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(9):e0222385. PubMed PMID: 31539390.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Implicit learning of artificial grammatical structures after inferior frontal cortex lesions. AU - Jarret,Tatiana, AU - Stockert,Anika, AU - Kotz,Sonja A, AU - Tillmann,Barbara, Y1 - 2019/09/20/ PY - 2018/04/25/received PY - 2019/08/29/accepted PY - 2019/9/21/entrez PY - 2019/9/21/pubmed PY - 2019/9/21/medline SP - e0222385 EP - e0222385 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 14 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Previous research associated the left inferior frontal cortex with implicit structure learning. The present study tested patients with lesions encompassing the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG; including Brodmann areas 44 and 45) to further investigate this cognitive function, notably by using non-verbal material, implicit investigation methods, and by enhancing potential remaining function via dynamic attending. Patients and healthy matched controls were exposed to an artificial pitch grammar in an implicit learning paradigm to circumvent the potential influence of impaired language processing. METHODS: Patients and healthy controls listened to pitch sequences generated within a finite-state grammar (exposure phase) and then performed a categorization task on new pitch sequences (test phase). Participants were not informed about the underlying grammar in either the exposure phase or the test phase. Furthermore, the pitch structures were presented in a highly regular temporal context as the beneficial impact of temporal regularity (e.g. meter) in learning and perception has been previously reported. Based on the Dynamic Attending Theory (DAT), we hypothesized that a temporally regular context helps developing temporal expectations that, in turn, facilitate event perception, and thus benefit artificial grammar learning. RESULTS: Electroencephalography results suggest preserved artificial grammar learning of pitch structures in patients and healthy controls. For both groups, analyses of event-related potentials revealed a larger early negativity (100-200 msec post-stimulus onset) in response to ungrammatical than grammatical pitch sequence events. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that (i) the LIFG does not play an exclusive role in the implicit learning of artificial pitch grammars, and (ii) the use of non-verbal material and an implicit task reveals cognitive capacities that remain intact despite lesions to the LIFG. These results provide grounds for training and rehabilitation, that is, learning of non-verbal grammars that may impact the relearning of verbal grammars. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31539390/Implicit_learning_of_artificial_grammatical_structures_after_inferior_frontal_cortex_lesions L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222385 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -