Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Reactivation Following Pharmacological Eradication of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV).Viruses 2019; 11(9)V
The US Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning related to the risk of reactivation of overt/occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during direct acting-antivirals (DAA) treatment. This review evaluated the prevalence of HBV reactivation after hepatitis C virus (HCV) pharmacological suppression and hypothesized the management and prevention of this reactivation. During and after DAA-based treatment, reactivation of HBV infection is common in patients with detectable serum HBsAg (from 2% to 57%) and very low (less than 3%) in individuals with isolated anti-HBc antibodies. The severity of hepatic damage may range from HBV reactivation without hepatitis to fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Thus, HBsAg-positive patients should receive nucleo(s)tide analog (NA) treatment or prophylaxis at the same time as DAA therapy. For those patients with occult B infection, there are no sufficient recommendations to start prophylactic treatment. Reactivation of overt or occult HBV infection during or after eradication of HCV infection is an issue to consider, and additional studies would help to determine the best management of this virological and clinical event.