Estradiol regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in mouse kidney and human tubular epithelial cells, implication for renal clearance of drugs.Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019; 519(3):613-619BB
P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) is an ATP-binding cassette drug efflux transporter expressed in a variety of tissues that affects the pharmacokinetic disposition of many drugs. Although several studies have reported gender-dependent differences in the expression of P-gp, the role of sex hormones in regulating the expression of P-gp and its transport activity has not been well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that 17β-estradiol has the ability to induce the expression of P-pg in mouse kidneys and cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. After intravenous injection of a typical P-gp substrate, digoxin, renal clearance in female mice was approximately 2-fold higher than that in male mice. The expression of murine P-gp and its mRNA (Abcb1a and Abcb1b) were also higher in female mice than in male mice. The expression of P-gp in cultured renal tissues prepared from female and male mice was significantly increased by 17β-estradiol, but not testosterone. Similar 17β-estradiol-induced expression of P-gp was also detected in cultured human tubular epithelial cells, accompanied by the enhancement of its transport activity of digoxin. The present findings suggest the contribution of estradiol to female-predominant expression of P-gp in renal cells, which is associated with sex-related disparities in the renal elimination of digoxin.