[Use of nanoparticles as radiosensitizing agents in radiotherapy: State of play].Cancer Radiother 2019CR
Nanomedicine has undergone significant development since the 2000s and it is only very recently that two metallic nanoparticles have emerged in clinical trials. The mechanism of these radiosensitizing agents is based on the presence of atoms with a high atomic number (Z) allowing a higher dose deposition into the tumor during irradiation. The first nanoparticle used in humans is NBTXR3, composed of hafnium (Z=79), with intratumor injection for the treatment of sarcoma. Another gadolinium-based nanoparticle (Z=64), AGuIX, has been used for intravenous injection in the treatment of brain metastases. The preliminary results are promising in terms of feasibility, safety and efficacy, as evidenced by the significant number of ongoing clinical trials. The upcoming challenges for the development of nanoparticles will be the targeting of cancer cells, their biodistribution into the body, their eventual toxicity and their industrial production. In the coming years, modalities of administration and optimal combinations with radiotherapy should be defined in connection with fundamental research.