Sonographic assessment of the optic nerve and the central retinal artery in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.J Clin Neurosci. 2020 Feb; 72:292-297.JC
Transorbital sonography easily detects papilledema and enlarged optic nerve sheath diameters (ONSD) in IIH (idiopathic intracranial hypertension) patients. As the central retinal artery is located within the optic nerve, its hemodynamic properties might be affected by the increased pressure. In this study we assessed the diagnostic usefulness of transorbital sonography in IIH with a special focus on color Doppler imaging of the central retinal artery. IIH patients presented papilledema and enlarged ONSD. ONSD accurately predicted an increased intracranial pressure in IIH (cut-off: 5.8 mm, 81% sensitivity, 80% specificity). 24 h following therapeutic lumbar puncture ONSD diminished significantly, whereas papilledema was not changed. PSV (peak systolic velocity) and Vmean (mean flow velocity) of the central retinal artery were increased in IIH patients compared to controls. PSV accurately predicted an increase of intracranial pressure (cut-off: 11.0 cm/s, 70% sensitivity, 69% specificity). PI (pulsatility index), PSV and Vmean decreased following lumbar puncture. PSV and Vmean decreases were statistically significant for right eyes only in which the values changed to normal. In summary, besides ONSD enlargement and papilledema transbulbar sonography demonstrated an alteration of central retinal artery blood flow in IIH patients. Especially PSV might serve as valuable surrogate marker for intracranial pressure in IIH. Furthermore, the change of intra-individual central retinal arteries PI might be a valuable parameter to demonstrate response to lumbar puncture in IIH patients.