Narrow-Banded UVB Affects the Stability of Secondary Plant Metabolites in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) and Pea (Pisum sativum) Leaves Being Added to Lentil Flour Fortified Bread: A Novel Approach for Producing Functional Foods.Foods. 2019 Sep 20; 8(10)F
Young kale and pea leaves are rich in secondary plant metabolites (SPMs) whose profile can be affected by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Carotenoids and flavonoids in kale and pea exposed to narrow-banded UVB, produced by innovative light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and subsequently used for breadmaking were investigated for the first time, thus combining two important strategies to increase the SPMs intake. Breads were also fortified with protein-rich lentil flour. Antioxidant activity in the 'vegetable breads' indicated health-promoting effects. Lentil flour increased the antioxidant activity in all of the 'vegetable breads'. While carotenoids and chlorophylls showed a minor response to UVB treatment, kaempferol glycosides decreased in favor of increasing quercetin glycosides, especially in kale. Additionally, breadmaking caused major decreases in carotenoids and a conversion of chlorophyll to bioactive degradation products. In 'kale breads' and 'pea breads', 20% and 84% of flavonoid glycosides were recovered. Thus, kale and pea leaves seem to be suitable natural ingredients for producing innovative Functional Foods.