Ceftazidime/avibactam Improves the Antibacterial Efficacy of Polymyxin B Against Polymyxin B Heteroresistant KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hinders Emergence of Resistant Subpopulation in vitro.Front Microbiol 2019; 10:2029FM
Due to the increasing multidrug resistance and limited antibiotics, polymyxin B revived as the last resort for the treatment of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). Unfortunately, the heteroresistance hampers polymyxin B monotherapy treatment via the amplification of resistant subpopulation. Reliable polymyxin B based combinations are demanded. Ceftazidime/avibactam has been regarded as a new salvage therapy against CRKP. The occurrence of heteroresistance was confirmed by population analysis profiling (PAP). Our study demonstrated that polymyxin B and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations improved the in vitro antimicrobial activity of polymyxin B and delayed or suppressed the regrowth of resistant subpopulation by time-kill studies. Ceftazidime/avibactam at around MIC values (0.5-1 × MIC) plus clinically achievable concentrations of polymyxin B (0.5-2 mg/L) resulted in sustained killing against polymyxin B-heteroresistant isolates. Active PmrAB and PhoPQ systems and a pmrA mutation (G53R) in resistant subpopulation might associate with heteroresistance, but further investigation was required. Our findings suggested that the heteroresistance represented barriers to polymyxin B efficacy, and the combination of polymyxin B with ceftazidime/avibactam could be potentially valuable for the treatment of heteroresistant CRKP. Further, in vivo studies need to be performed to evaluate the efficacy of this combination against heteroresistant strains.