Holohemispheric Invasive Aspergillus Granulomatous Cerebritis of the Brain.World Neurosurg. 2020 Feb; 134:170-175.WN
Invasive aspergillosis of the central nervous system, a saprophytic infection with a unique vascular tropism, carries the burden of increased morbidity and mortality. Early clinical and imaging findings can masquerade as an innocuous condition before a secondary inexorable progression. We highlight the clinical and imaging phenotype of a patient with fatal invasive granulomatous aspergillosis.
A 39-year-old man presented with progressive weakness of the left upper and lower limb for 4 months. Imaging demonstrated right holohemispheric extensive, numerous, confluent, ill-defined, T2 hypointense foci with moderate perilesional edema. Numerous foci of microhemorrhages with cortical asymmetric mineralization were seen. Post-contrast heterogeneous, variegate, punctiform enhancement of the lesions was observed extending to the ventricular margins. Volume loss of the left cerebral peduncle and ipsilateral long white matter descending tracts was noted. Histopathologic examination of a stereotactic biopsy specimen from the frontal region lesion showed dense inflammatory infiltrate with granulomas, a few in a perivascular distribution and branching septate hyphae resembling Aspergillus. The patient was initiated on antifungal therapy and in the following week, he had progressive drowsiness. The patient succumbed the next day.
Diffuse holohemispheric, progressive presentation of a granulomatous form of invasive aspergillosis is a rare entity. The miliary pattern of heterogenous enhancement, holohemispheric conglomerate T2 hypointensities, interspersed hemorrhage, juxtacortical punctate T2 hyperintense foci, low perfusion, and the relative absence of diffusion abnormality are distinctive features. Early diagnosis of this atypical imaging phenotype of Aspergillus infection and appropriate treatment is critical for better prognosis.