Enantioselective mechanism of toxic effects of triticonazole against Chlorella pyrenoidosa.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Dec 15; 185:109691.EE
The rational use and the environmental safety of chiral pesticides have attracted significant research interest. Here, enantioselective toxic effects and the selective toxic mechanism of triticonazole (TRZ) against the aquatic microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa were studied. The 96h-EC50 values of rac-, (R)-(-)-, and (S)-(+)-TRZ were 1.939, 0.853, and 22.002 mg/L, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/L, the contents of photosynthetic pigments of C. pyrenoidosa exposed to (R)-(-)-TRZ were lower than if exposed to S-(+)-form and racemate. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the R-(-)-form compromised the integrity of cells and disrupted the chloroplast structure. R-(-)-TRZ stimulated vast reactive oxygen species (ROS) and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. For lipid accumulation experiments, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulations in algal cells treated with R-(-)-TRZ were 171.50% and 280.76%, respectively, compared with the control group. This far exceeded levels of algal cells treated with S-(+)- and rac-TRZ. Based on these data, R-(-)-TRZ was concluded to selectively affect the photosynthetic system, antioxidant system, and lipid synthesis of algal cells, thus causing enantioselective toxic effects of TRZ against C. pyrenoidosa, which indicating that the use of racemate may cause unpredictable environmental harm. Therefore, to reduce the hidden dangers of chiral pesticides for the ecological environment, the environmental risk of TRZ should be evaluated at the stereoselective level.