Phosphorus (P) release risk in lake sediment evaluated by DIFS model and sediment properties: A new sediment P release risk index (SPRRI).Environ Pollut. 2019 Dec; 255(Pt 2):113279.EP
A new sediment P release risk index (SPRRI) for "in-situ" phosphorus (P) release risk in lake sediment, is developed based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, DGT induced flux in sediments (DIFS) model and sediment properties. SPRRI includes three sub-indexes, which contain (1) the labile P pool size, (2) resupply constant (r) and desorption rate (Dspt rate) for P transfer and (3) the molar ratio between iron (Fe) in sequential extraction for sediment P by bicarbonate-dithionite (BD) and aluminum (Al) by NaOH (at 25 °C), i.e. BD(Fe)/Al[NaOH25] in sediment solid. The first sub-index considers P release from (i) sediment with NH4Cl-P+BD-P pool, i.e. the loosely sorbed P (NH4Cl-P) plus iron associated P (BD-P), or (ii) sediment with NH4Cl-P pool, respectively. The second and third sub-indexes reflect kinetic P desorption and resupply ability of solid phase, and the effect of P sequestration by Al hydroxide on P release, in turn. The inner relationship between SPRRI and sub-indexes, and their effects on P release risk are elucidated. SPRRI can be used to evaluate sediment P reactivity by five release risk ranks. For Lake Dianchi (China), P transfer dynamics, labile P pool, resupply ability and Al-P in sediment, and "external P-loading" control and affect P release risk in different regions, which is reflected by the spatial distribution map for SPRRI. The present SPRRI can be applied for lakes with (1) pH range varying from moderate acidity to weak alkalinity in waterbody and (2) NH4Cl-P or NH4Cl-P+BD-P pool in sediment solid.