Attenuation of diabetic cardiomyopathy by relying on kirenol to suppress inflammation in a diabetic rat model.J Cell Mol Med. 2019 11; 23(11):7651-7663.JC
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by diabetes-induced myocardial abnormalities, accompanied by inflammatory response and alterations in inflammation-related signalling pathways. Kirenol, isolated from Herba Siegesbeckiae, has potent anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of kirenol against DCM and underlying the potential mechanisms in a type 2 diabetes mellitus model. Kirenol treatment significantly decreased high glucose-induced cardiofibroblasts proliferation and increased the cardiomyocytes viability, prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and further attenuated cardiomyocytes apoptosis, accompanied by a reduction in apoptosis-related protein expression. Kirenol gavage could affect the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner but not lower lipid profiles, and only decrease fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin and mean HbA1c levels in high-dose kirenol-treated group at some time-points. Left ventricular dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and cell apoptosis, as structural and functional abnormalities, were ameliorated by kirenol administration. Moreover, in diabetic hearts, oral kirenol significantly attenuated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily and nuclear translocation of NF-κB and Smad2/3 and decreased phosphorylation of IκBα and both fibrosis-related and apoptosis-related proteins. In an Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the binding activities of NF-κB, Smad3/4, SP1 and AP-1 in the nucleus of diabetic myocardium were significantly down-regulated by kirenol treatment. Additionally, high dose significantly enhanced myocardial Akt phosphorylation without intraperitoneal injection of insulin. Kirenol may have potent cardioprotective effects on treating for the established diabetic cardiomyopathy, which involves the inhibition of inflammation and fibrosis-related signalling pathways and is independent of lowering hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia and lipid profiles.