Non-mydriatic fundus camera screening with diagnosis by telemedicine for diabetic retinopathy patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.Ann Saudi Med. 2019 Sep-Oct; 39(5):328-336.AS
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is considered the fifth leading cause of visual impairment worldwide and is associated with a huge social and economic burden.
Describe the practicality of non-mydriatic funduscopic screening photography for the detection of DR among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Cross-sectional hospital-based study.
Diabetes center, Riyadh.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Between July and December 2017, patients with diabetes and aged ≥18 years were selected by systematic random sampling from the University Diabetes Center. Fundoscopic eye examination was performed using the TRC-NW8 non-mydriatic camera, which performs ocular coherence tomography (OCT) to detect macular edema. Using telemedicine, pictures were graded by a retinal-specialized ophthalmologist using the international clinical DR disease severity scale. Patients were classified according to the type and severity of DR.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Detection and classification of DR.
978 Saudi patients with diabetes.
Of 426 (43.5%) patients with DR, 370 had nonproliferative DR and 55 had proliferative DR. Nineteen (1.9%) had macular edema. The most important risk factors for DR were longer diabetes duration and poor glycemic control. Both older age and insulin use contributed to the higher prevalence of DR and macular edema. DR was more common among type 1 patients at 55.4% compared with 49% among type 2 patients. In addition, more females had macular edema (57.1% versus 42.9% among males). Nine patients with macular edema (47.3%) had hypertension while 154 of 426 patients with DR (36.2%) had hypertension.
Non-mydriatic funduscopic screening photography was practical and useful for the detection of DR in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Conducted in a single center.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST