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Real-time artificial intelligence for detection of upper gastrointestinal cancer by endoscopy: a multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Upper gastrointestinal cancers (including oesophageal cancer and gastric cancer) are the most common cancers worldwide. Artificial intelligence platforms using deep learning algorithms have made remarkable progress in medical imaging but their application in upper gastrointestinal cancers has been limited. We aimed to develop and validate the Gastrointestinal Artificial Intelligence Diagnostic System (GRAIDS) for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal cancers through analysis of imaging data from clinical endoscopies.

METHODS

This multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study was done in six hospitals of different tiers (ie, municipal, provincial, and national) in China. The images of consecutive participants, aged 18 years or older, who had not had a previous endoscopy were retrieved from all participating hospitals. All patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer lesions (including oesophageal cancer and gastric cancer) that were histologically proven malignancies were eligible for this study. Only images with standard white light were deemed eligible. The images from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were randomly assigned (8:1:1) to the training and intrinsic verification datasets for developing GRAIDS, and the internal validation dataset for evaluating the performance of GRAIDS. Its diagnostic performance was evaluated using an internal and prospective validation set from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (a national hospital) and additional external validation sets from five primary care hospitals. The performance of GRAIDS was also compared with endoscopists with three degrees of expertise: expert, competent, and trainee. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of GRAIDS and endoscopists for the identification of cancerous lesions were evaluated by calculating the 95% CIs using the Clopper-Pearson method.

FINDINGS

1 036 496 endoscopy images from 84 424 individuals were used to develop and test GRAIDS. The diagnostic accuracy in identifying upper gastrointestinal cancers was 0·955 (95% CI 0·952-0·957) in the internal validation set, 0·927 (0·925-0·929) in the prospective set, and ranged from 0·915 (0·913-0·917) to 0·977 (0·977-0·978) in the five external validation sets. GRAIDS achieved diagnostic sensitivity similar to that of the expert endoscopist (0·942 [95% CI 0·924-0·957] vs 0·945 [0·927-0·959]; p=0·692) and superior sensitivity compared with competent (0·858 [0·832-0·880], p<0·0001) and trainee (0·722 [0·691-0·752], p<0·0001) endoscopists. The positive predictive value was 0·814 (95% CI 0·788-0·838) for GRAIDS, 0·932 (0·913-0·948) for the expert endoscopist, 0·974 (0·960-0·984) for the competent endoscopist, and 0·824 (0·795-0·850) for the trainee endoscopist. The negative predictive value was 0·978 (95% CI 0·971-0·984) for GRAIDS, 0·980 (0·974-0·985) for the expert endoscopist, 0·951 (0·942-0·959) for the competent endoscopist, and 0·904 (0·893-0·916) for the trainee endoscopist.

INTERPRETATION

GRAIDS achieved high diagnostic accuracy in detecting upper gastrointestinal cancers, with sensitivity similar to that of expert endoscopists and was superior to that of non-expert endoscopists. This system could assist community-based hospitals in improving their effectiveness in upper gastrointestinal cancer diagnoses.

FUNDING

The National Key R&D Program of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong, the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Endoscopy, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Endoscopy, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Endoscopy, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Endoscopy, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Gastric Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Endoscopy, Jiangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, China.Department of Endoscopy, Jiangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, China.Department of Digestive Internal, Wuzhou Red Cross Hospital, Wuzhou, China.Department of Digestive Internal, The North Guangdong People's Hospital, Shaoguan, China.Department of Digestive Internal, Puning People's Hospital, Puning, China.Department of Digestive Internal, Puning People's Hospital, Puning, China.Department of Digestive Internal, Jieyang People's Hospital, Jieyang, China.Department of Digestive Internal, Jieyang People's Hospital, Jieyang, China.Medical Administration Department, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Medical Administration Department, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Medical Administration Department, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: xurh@sysucc.org.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31591062

Citation

Luo, Huiyan, et al. "Real-time Artificial Intelligence for Detection of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer By Endoscopy: a Multicentre, Case-control, Diagnostic Study." The Lancet. Oncology, 2019.
Luo H, Xu G, Li C, et al. Real-time artificial intelligence for detection of upper gastrointestinal cancer by endoscopy: a multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study. Lancet Oncol. 2019.
Luo, H., Xu, G., Li, C., He, L., Luo, L., Wang, Z., ... Xu, R. H. (2019). Real-time artificial intelligence for detection of upper gastrointestinal cancer by endoscopy: a multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study. The Lancet. Oncology, doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30637-0.
Luo H, et al. Real-time Artificial Intelligence for Detection of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer By Endoscopy: a Multicentre, Case-control, Diagnostic Study. Lancet Oncol. 2019 Oct 4; PubMed PMID: 31591062.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Real-time artificial intelligence for detection of upper gastrointestinal cancer by endoscopy: a multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study. AU - Luo,Huiyan, AU - Xu,Guoliang, AU - Li,Chaofeng, AU - He,Longjun, AU - Luo,Linna, AU - Wang,Zixian, AU - Jing,Bingzhong, AU - Deng,Yishu, AU - Jin,Ying, AU - Li,Yin, AU - Li,Bin, AU - Tan,Wencheng, AU - He,Caisheng, AU - Seeruttun,Sharvesh Raj, AU - Wu,Qiubao, AU - Huang,Jun, AU - Huang,De-Wang, AU - Chen,Bin, AU - Lin,Shao-Bin, AU - Chen,Qin-Ming, AU - Yuan,Chu-Ming, AU - Chen,Hai-Xin, AU - Pu,Heng-Ying, AU - Zhou,Feng, AU - He,Yun, AU - Xu,Rui-Hua, Y1 - 2019/10/04/ PY - 2019/05/30/received PY - 2019/08/20/revised PY - 2019/08/20/accepted PY - 2019/10/9/entrez JF - The Lancet. Oncology JO - Lancet Oncol. N2 - BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal cancers (including oesophageal cancer and gastric cancer) are the most common cancers worldwide. Artificial intelligence platforms using deep learning algorithms have made remarkable progress in medical imaging but their application in upper gastrointestinal cancers has been limited. We aimed to develop and validate the Gastrointestinal Artificial Intelligence Diagnostic System (GRAIDS) for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal cancers through analysis of imaging data from clinical endoscopies. METHODS: This multicentre, case-control, diagnostic study was done in six hospitals of different tiers (ie, municipal, provincial, and national) in China. The images of consecutive participants, aged 18 years or older, who had not had a previous endoscopy were retrieved from all participating hospitals. All patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer lesions (including oesophageal cancer and gastric cancer) that were histologically proven malignancies were eligible for this study. Only images with standard white light were deemed eligible. The images from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were randomly assigned (8:1:1) to the training and intrinsic verification datasets for developing GRAIDS, and the internal validation dataset for evaluating the performance of GRAIDS. Its diagnostic performance was evaluated using an internal and prospective validation set from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (a national hospital) and additional external validation sets from five primary care hospitals. The performance of GRAIDS was also compared with endoscopists with three degrees of expertise: expert, competent, and trainee. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of GRAIDS and endoscopists for the identification of cancerous lesions were evaluated by calculating the 95% CIs using the Clopper-Pearson method. FINDINGS: 1 036 496 endoscopy images from 84 424 individuals were used to develop and test GRAIDS. The diagnostic accuracy in identifying upper gastrointestinal cancers was 0·955 (95% CI 0·952-0·957) in the internal validation set, 0·927 (0·925-0·929) in the prospective set, and ranged from 0·915 (0·913-0·917) to 0·977 (0·977-0·978) in the five external validation sets. GRAIDS achieved diagnostic sensitivity similar to that of the expert endoscopist (0·942 [95% CI 0·924-0·957] vs 0·945 [0·927-0·959]; p=0·692) and superior sensitivity compared with competent (0·858 [0·832-0·880], p<0·0001) and trainee (0·722 [0·691-0·752], p<0·0001) endoscopists. The positive predictive value was 0·814 (95% CI 0·788-0·838) for GRAIDS, 0·932 (0·913-0·948) for the expert endoscopist, 0·974 (0·960-0·984) for the competent endoscopist, and 0·824 (0·795-0·850) for the trainee endoscopist. The negative predictive value was 0·978 (95% CI 0·971-0·984) for GRAIDS, 0·980 (0·974-0·985) for the expert endoscopist, 0·951 (0·942-0·959) for the competent endoscopist, and 0·904 (0·893-0·916) for the trainee endoscopist. INTERPRETATION: GRAIDS achieved high diagnostic accuracy in detecting upper gastrointestinal cancers, with sensitivity similar to that of expert endoscopists and was superior to that of non-expert endoscopists. This system could assist community-based hospitals in improving their effectiveness in upper gastrointestinal cancer diagnoses. FUNDING: The National Key R&D Program of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong, the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. SN - 1474-5488 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31591062/Real_time_artificial_intelligence_for_detection_of_upper_gastrointestinal_cancer_by_endoscopy:_a_multicentre_case_control_diagnostic_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1470-2045(19)30637-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -