Vitamin K, Vascular Calcification, and Chronic Kidney Disease: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions.Curr Dev Nutr 2019; 3(9):nzz077CD
More than 15% of the US population is currently >65 y old. As populations age there is a concomitant increase in age-related chronic diseases. One such disease is chronic kidney disease (CKD), which becomes more prevalent with age, especially over age 70 y. Individuals with CKD are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, in part because arterial calcification increases as kidney function declines. Vitamin K is a shortfall nutrient among older adults that has been implicated in arterial calcification. Evidence suggests CKD patients have low vitamin K status, but data are equivocal because the biomarkers of vitamin K status can be influenced by CKD. Animal studies provide more compelling data on the underlying role of vitamin K in arterial calcification associated with CKD. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the available evidence regarding the role of vitamin K in CKD.