[Evaluation of dietary intake quantity and quality of high school students in Shanghai City].Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2019; 48(4):560-572WS
To understand the dietary intake quantity and quality of high school students in Shanghai education.
From 2015 to 2016, Shanghai center for Disease Control and Prevention, divided the school into three levels(urban area, suburban area and rural area) according to the economic level and population composition of the street where the school was located. The probability-proportional-to-size sampling technique was used to select 19 high schools, from which 9 boys and 9 girls from same class were randomly recruited for each grade. A total of 1026 students were recruited. The survey included general situation questionnaire and dietary inquiry. Participants were required to complete the standardized questionnaire form through face-to-face interviews with trained interviewers. Chinese Dietary Guidelines(2016) was used to evaluate dietary quantity while China healthy diet index(CHDI) was used to evaluate dietary quality.
The medians of intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, meat/livestock, fish/shrimp, eggs, milk and milk products, bean and bean products, cooking oil, cooking salt were 313. 8, 189. 7, 66. 3, 179. 2, 34. 7, 48. 9, 133. 3, 33. 3, 27. 1 and 6. 0 g/d within high school students, respectively. In both boys and girls, the medians of intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products were lower than reference standard and meat/livestock was higher(P<0. 05). The intake differences among different area's high school students upon grain, vegetables, fruits, poultry/livestock, fish/shrimp, dairy products, beans/nuts, cooking oil, cooking salt were statistically significant(P<0. 05). The CHDI median total score of high school students was 68. 5 in Shanghai. 75. 2% of the CHDI total scores were between 60 and 80. The vegetable score, dark vegetable score, fruit score and total CHDI score in boys were significantly lower than those in girls(P<0. 05). The urban area CHDI score was significantly higher than suburban's and countryside's(P<0. 05).
Both dietary structure and dietary quality are inappropriate and unfit within high school students in Shanghai, the urban area's condition is better than another two. We suggest to increase intake of vegetables, fruits, fish/shrimp, dairy products while decrease poultry/livestock's consumption.