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Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019; 19(1):348BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Breast milk is a natural and unique nutrient for optimum growth and development of the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unpredictable drug residues in mothers' milk and the relationship between drug residues and maternal-infant characteristics.

METHODS

In a descriptive study, breastfed infants under 3 months of age and their mothers who applied for child health monitoring were enrolled for the study. Information forms were completed for maternal-infant characteristics, breastfeeding problems, crying and sleep characteristics of infants. Maternal and infant anthropometric measurements and maternal milk sample were taken. Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was applied to mothers. RANDOX Infiniplex kit for milk was used for residual analysis.

RESULTS

Overall, 90 volunteer mothers and their breastfed infants were taken into the study and the mean age of the mothers and their infants was 31.5 ± 4.2 years and 57.8 ± 18.1 days, respectively. Anti-inflammatory drug residues in breast milk were detected in 30.0% of mothers and all had tolfenamic acid. Overall, 94.4% had quinolone, 93.3% beta-lactam, 31.1% aminoglycoside and 13.3% polymycin residues. Drugs used during pregnancy or lactation period were not affected by the presence of residues. Edinburgh postpartum depression scores of mothers and crying and sleeping problems of infants were similar in cases with and without drug residues in breast milk. When controlling confounding factors, maternal body mass index alterations were detected to be significantly lower in mothers with anti-inflammatory drug residues in breast milk than in their counterparts (p = 0.017).

CONCLUSIONS

Our study suggests that there are unpredictable drug residues in the milk of many mothers. Anti-inflammatory drug exposure might affect maternal weight change during the postpartum period. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of drug residues on maternal and infant health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.Unit of Social Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31604458

Citation

Ergen, Ayşe Meltem, and Sıddıka Songül Yalçın. "Unexpected Drug Residuals in Human Milk in Ankara, Capital of Turkey." BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 348.
Ergen AM, Yalçın SS. Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):348.
Ergen, A. M., & Yalçın, S. S. (2019). Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1), p. 348. doi:10.1186/s12884-019-2506-1.
Ergen AM, Yalçın SS. Unexpected Drug Residuals in Human Milk in Ankara, Capital of Turkey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Oct 11;19(1):348. PubMed PMID: 31604458.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Unexpected drug residuals in human milk in Ankara, capital of Turkey. AU - Ergen,Ayşe Meltem, AU - Yalçın,Sıddıka Songül, Y1 - 2019/10/11/ PY - 2018/12/05/received PY - 2019/09/12/accepted PY - 2019/10/13/entrez PY - 2019/10/13/pubmed PY - 2019/10/13/medline KW - Breast milk KW - Crying KW - Drug remnants KW - Growth KW - Postnatal maternal weight KW - Sleep SP - 348 EP - 348 JF - BMC pregnancy and childbirth JO - BMC Pregnancy Childbirth VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Breast milk is a natural and unique nutrient for optimum growth and development of the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unpredictable drug residues in mothers' milk and the relationship between drug residues and maternal-infant characteristics. METHODS: In a descriptive study, breastfed infants under 3 months of age and their mothers who applied for child health monitoring were enrolled for the study. Information forms were completed for maternal-infant characteristics, breastfeeding problems, crying and sleep characteristics of infants. Maternal and infant anthropometric measurements and maternal milk sample were taken. Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was applied to mothers. RANDOX Infiniplex kit for milk was used for residual analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 90 volunteer mothers and their breastfed infants were taken into the study and the mean age of the mothers and their infants was 31.5 ± 4.2 years and 57.8 ± 18.1 days, respectively. Anti-inflammatory drug residues in breast milk were detected in 30.0% of mothers and all had tolfenamic acid. Overall, 94.4% had quinolone, 93.3% beta-lactam, 31.1% aminoglycoside and 13.3% polymycin residues. Drugs used during pregnancy or lactation period were not affected by the presence of residues. Edinburgh postpartum depression scores of mothers and crying and sleeping problems of infants were similar in cases with and without drug residues in breast milk. When controlling confounding factors, maternal body mass index alterations were detected to be significantly lower in mothers with anti-inflammatory drug residues in breast milk than in their counterparts (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that there are unpredictable drug residues in the milk of many mothers. Anti-inflammatory drug exposure might affect maternal weight change during the postpartum period. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of drug residues on maternal and infant health. SN - 1471-2393 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31604458/Unexpected_drug_residuals_in_human_milk_in_Ankara,_capital_of_Turkey L2 - https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-019-2506-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -