TFPa/HADHA is required for fatty acid beta-oxidation and cardiolipin re-modeling in human cardiomyocytes.Nat Commun 2019; 10(1):4671NC
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, due to mutations in hydratase subunit A (HADHA), results in sudden infant death syndrome with no cure. To reveal the disease etiology, we generated stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from HADHA-deficient hiPSCs and accelerated their maturation via an engineered microRNA maturation cocktail that upregulated the epigenetic regulator, HOPX. Here we report, matured HADHA mutant cardiomyocytes treated with an endogenous mixture of fatty acids manifest the disease phenotype: defective calcium dynamics and repolarization kinetics which results in a pro-arrhythmic state. Single cell RNA-seq reveals a cardiomyocyte developmental intermediate, based on metabolic gene expression. This intermediate gives rise to mature-like cardiomyocytes in control cells but, mutant cells transition to a pathological state with reduced fatty acid beta-oxidation, reduced mitochondrial proton gradient, disrupted cristae structure and defective cardiolipin remodeling. This study reveals that HADHA (tri-functional protein alpha), a monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase-like enzyme, is required for fatty acid beta-oxidation and cardiolipin remodeling, essential for functional mitochondria in human cardiomyocytes.