Urinary angiotensinogen antedates the development of stage 3 CKD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Physiol Rep 2019; 7(19):e14242PR
We examined if urinary angiotensinogen (uAOG), a marker of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity, antedates stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) using samples from participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and later in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC) trial. In a nested case-control design, cases were matched at the outcome visit (eGFR less than 60, 21-59 mL/min per 1.73 m2) on age, gender, and diabetes duration, with controls: eGFR (95, 75-119, mL/min per 1.73 m2 .) Additionally, in an exploratory analysis progressive renal decline (PRD), defined as eGFR loss >3.5 mL/min per 1.73m2 /year, was evaluated using only data from EDIC because no progressions were observed during DCCT. At the EDIC visit, which antedated the GFR outcome visit by 2 years (range 1-7years) the median uAOG/creatinine was markedly higher in cases than in controls (13.9 vs. 3.8 ng/mg P = 0.003) whereas at the DCCT visit, which antedated the GFR outcome by 17 to 20 years it was not (2.75 vs. 3.16 ng/mg, respectively). The Odds Ratio for uAOG and CKD stage 3 development was significant after adjusting for eGFR, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure 1.82 (1.00-3.29) but no longer significant when Albumin Excretion Ratio (AER) was included 1.21 (0.65-2.24).In the PRD analysis, uAOG/creatinine was sixfold higher in participants who experienced PRD than in those who did not (26 vs. 4.0 ng/mg, P = 0.003). The Odds Ratio for uAOG and PRD was significant after adjusting for eGFR, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure 2.48 (1.46-4.22) but no longer significant when AER was included 1.32 (0.76-2.30). In people with type1 diabetes, a robust increase in uAOG antedates the development of stage 3 CKD but is not superior to AER in predicting this renal outcome. Increased uAOG moreover is associated with PRD, an index of progression to End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD).