Clinical Features of Tourette Syndrome.J Child Neurol 2019; :883073819877335JC
Tourette syndrome is a multifaceted disorder characterized by multiple motor and at least one vocal tics that start in childhood, persist for at least 1 year, and cannot be attributed to another medical condition or exposure to medications/drugs. Clinical diagnostic criteria are available, and identification of tics is typically straightforward based on characteristic appearance and features. Diagnostic uncertainty can rarely arise in cases of mild tics, atypical features, certain psychiatric comorbidities, and other non-tic movement disorders. Comorbid psychopathology, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive behaviors/obsessive-compulsive disorder, affects the majority of patients and is correlated with disease severity and the presence of additional psychiatric behaviors. The severity of tics often improves after adolescence, whereas psychiatric symptoms typically persist. The subset of patients in whom tics persist into adulthood experience higher rates of anxiety, and lower self-esteem, socioeconomic status, and quality of life; the relative contribution of motor tics and psychopathology is not fully understood. This article summarizes the clinical features of Tourette syndrome, including major diagnostic criteria, unique features of tics, and key aspects that differentiate tics from common mimics and chameleons. Comorbid psychiatric conditions and their impact on phenotype and quality of life are described. Finally, current understanding of the natural history is summarized, including limited research in adults with Tourette syndrome.