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Postanaesthetic effects of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine on gastrointestinal transit time in rabbits anaesthetised with isoflurane.
Vet Rec 2019VR

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Gastrointestinal stasis is a common perianaesthetic complication in rabbits. The objective of this study was to assess the impact on gastrointestinal transit time of ketamine-midazolam (KMZ) versus ketamine-medetomidine (later antagonised by atipamezole) (KMT-A) in rabbits anaesthetised with isoflurane.

METHODS

This was a cross-over, randomised, single-blinded, controlled, experimental trial. Seven healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were used. Gastrointestinal transit time was assessed by contrast radiography in awake rabbits. Presence of contrast medium in the small intestine (gastric transit time), in the caecum (small intestinal transit time) and in faeces in the colon was assessed. One week later, 55 minutes isoflurane anaesthesia was induced with ketamine (15 mg/kg) and either midazolam (3 mg/kg) or medetomidine (0.25 mg/kg) by intramuscular injection. Thirty minutes after discontinuation of isoflurane, atipamezole (0.5 mg/kg) was administered only to rabbits in KMT-A treatment. Gastrointestinal transit time was then assessed in both treatment groups, beginning 30 minutes after cessation of isoflurane administration. Two weeks later, the treatment groups were interchanged.

RESULTS

Gastric and small intestinal transit times were significantly longer with KMT-A (92±109 minutes and 214±119 minutes, respectively) than with KMZ (1±0 minutes and 103±6 minutes, respectively) and in the awake state (7±7 minutes and 94±32 minutes, respectively).

CONCLUSION

Clinicians should therefore be aware of the potential gastrointestinal side effects of KMT-A, particularly in rabbits at risk for gastrointestinal stasis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Integrated Veterinary Research Unit, Namur Research Institute for Life Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium. Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, University of Liege Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Liege, Belgium.Integrated Veterinary Research Unit, Namur Research Institute for Life Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, University of Liege Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Liege, Belgium.Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, University of Liege Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Liege, Belgium.Integrated Veterinary Research Unit, Namur Research Institute for Life Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.Chester Gates Veterinary Specialists, Chester, UK.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31611296

Citation

Botman, Julie, et al. "Postanaesthetic Effects of Ketamine-midazolam and Ketamine-medetomidine On Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Rabbits Anaesthetised With Isoflurane." The Veterinary Record, 2019.
Botman J, Hontoir F, Gustin P, et al. Postanaesthetic effects of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine on gastrointestinal transit time in rabbits anaesthetised with isoflurane. Vet Rec. 2019.
Botman, J., Hontoir, F., Gustin, P., Cambier, C., Gabriel, F., Dugdale, A., & Vandeweerd, J. M. (2019). Postanaesthetic effects of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine on gastrointestinal transit time in rabbits anaesthetised with isoflurane. The Veterinary Record, doi:10.1136/vr.105491.
Botman J, et al. Postanaesthetic Effects of Ketamine-midazolam and Ketamine-medetomidine On Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Rabbits Anaesthetised With Isoflurane. Vet Rec. 2019 Oct 14; PubMed PMID: 31611296.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Postanaesthetic effects of ketamine-midazolam and ketamine-medetomidine on gastrointestinal transit time in rabbits anaesthetised with isoflurane. AU - Botman,Julie, AU - Hontoir,Fanny, AU - Gustin,Pascal, AU - Cambier,Carole, AU - Gabriel,Fabien, AU - Dugdale,Alex, AU - Vandeweerd,Jean-Michel, Y1 - 2019/10/14/ PY - 2019/04/01/received PY - 2019/07/23/revised PY - 2019/09/18/accepted PY - 2019/10/16/entrez KW - anaesthesia KW - gastrointestinal KW - medetomidine KW - midazolam KW - rabbits JF - The Veterinary record JO - Vet. Rec. N2 - BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stasis is a common perianaesthetic complication in rabbits. The objective of this study was to assess the impact on gastrointestinal transit time of ketamine-midazolam (KMZ) versus ketamine-medetomidine (later antagonised by atipamezole) (KMT-A) in rabbits anaesthetised with isoflurane. METHODS: This was a cross-over, randomised, single-blinded, controlled, experimental trial. Seven healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were used. Gastrointestinal transit time was assessed by contrast radiography in awake rabbits. Presence of contrast medium in the small intestine (gastric transit time), in the caecum (small intestinal transit time) and in faeces in the colon was assessed. One week later, 55 minutes isoflurane anaesthesia was induced with ketamine (15 mg/kg) and either midazolam (3 mg/kg) or medetomidine (0.25 mg/kg) by intramuscular injection. Thirty minutes after discontinuation of isoflurane, atipamezole (0.5 mg/kg) was administered only to rabbits in KMT-A treatment. Gastrointestinal transit time was then assessed in both treatment groups, beginning 30 minutes after cessation of isoflurane administration. Two weeks later, the treatment groups were interchanged. RESULTS: Gastric and small intestinal transit times were significantly longer with KMT-A (92±109 minutes and 214±119 minutes, respectively) than with KMZ (1±0 minutes and 103±6 minutes, respectively) and in the awake state (7±7 minutes and 94±32 minutes, respectively). CONCLUSION: Clinicians should therefore be aware of the potential gastrointestinal side effects of KMT-A, particularly in rabbits at risk for gastrointestinal stasis. SN - 2042-7670 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31611296/Postanaesthetic_effects_of_ketamine-midazolam_and_ketamine-medetomidine_on_gastrointestinal_transit_time_in_rabbits_anaesthetised_with_isoflurane L2 - http://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=31611296 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -