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Mixed Active and Passive, Heart Rate-Controlled Heat Acclimation Is Effective for Paralympic and Able-Bodied Triathletes.
Front Physiol 2019; 10:1214FP

Abstract

Purpose:

The aims of this study are to explore the effectiveness of mixed active and passive heat acclimation (HA), controlling the relative intensity of exercise by heart rate (HR) in paratriathletes (PARA), and to determine the adaptation differences to able-bodied (AB) triathletes.

Methods:

Seven elite paratriathletes and 13 AB triathletes undertook an 8-day HA intervention consisting of five HR-controlled sessions and three passive heat exposures (35°C, 63% relative humidity). On the first and last days of HA, heat stress tests were conducted, whereby thermoregulatory changes were recorded during at a fixed, submaximal workload. The AB group undertook 20 km cycling time trials pre- and post-HA with performance compared to an AB, non-acclimated control group.

Results:

During the heat stress test, HA lowered core temperature (PARA: 0.27 ± 0.32°C; AB: 0.28 ± 0.34°C), blood lactate concentration (PARA: 0.23 ± 0.15 mmol l-1; AB: 0.38 ± 0.31 mmol l-1) with concomitant plasma volume expansion (PARA: 12.7 ± 10.6%; AB: 6.2 ± 7.7%; p ≤ 0.047). In the AB group, a lower skin temperature (0.19 ± 0.44°C) and HR (5 ± 6 bpm) with a greater sweat rate (0.17 ± 0.25 L h-1) were evident post-HA (p ≤ 0.045), but this was not present for the PARA group (p ≥ 0.177). The AB group improved their performance by an extent greater than the smallest worthwhile change based on the normal variation present with no HA (4.5 vs. 3.7%).

Conclusions:

Paratriathletes are capable of displaying partial HA, albeit not to same extent as AB triathletes. The HA protocol was effective at stimulating thermoregulatory adaptations with performance changes noted in AB triathletes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom. Physiology, English Institute of Sport, Loughborough Performance Centre, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.The Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.The Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31616314

Citation

Stephenson, Ben T., et al. "Mixed Active and Passive, Heart Rate-Controlled Heat Acclimation Is Effective for Paralympic and Able-Bodied Triathletes." Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 10, 2019, p. 1214.
Stephenson BT, Tolfrey K, Goosey-Tolfrey VL. Mixed Active and Passive, Heart Rate-Controlled Heat Acclimation Is Effective for Paralympic and Able-Bodied Triathletes. Front Physiol. 2019;10:1214.
Stephenson, B. T., Tolfrey, K., & Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L. (2019). Mixed Active and Passive, Heart Rate-Controlled Heat Acclimation Is Effective for Paralympic and Able-Bodied Triathletes. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, p. 1214. doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.01214.
Stephenson BT, Tolfrey K, Goosey-Tolfrey VL. Mixed Active and Passive, Heart Rate-Controlled Heat Acclimation Is Effective for Paralympic and Able-Bodied Triathletes. Front Physiol. 2019;10:1214. PubMed PMID: 31616314.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mixed Active and Passive, Heart Rate-Controlled Heat Acclimation Is Effective for Paralympic and Able-Bodied Triathletes. AU - Stephenson,Ben T, AU - Tolfrey,Keith, AU - Goosey-Tolfrey,Victoria L, Y1 - 2019/09/20/ PY - 2019/06/19/received PY - 2019/09/06/accepted PY - 2019/10/17/entrez PY - 2019/10/17/pubmed PY - 2019/10/17/medline KW - acclimatization KW - disability KW - elite KW - isothermic KW - thermoregulation KW - triathlon SP - 1214 EP - 1214 JF - Frontiers in physiology JO - Front Physiol VL - 10 N2 - Purpose: The aims of this study are to explore the effectiveness of mixed active and passive heat acclimation (HA), controlling the relative intensity of exercise by heart rate (HR) in paratriathletes (PARA), and to determine the adaptation differences to able-bodied (AB) triathletes. Methods: Seven elite paratriathletes and 13 AB triathletes undertook an 8-day HA intervention consisting of five HR-controlled sessions and three passive heat exposures (35°C, 63% relative humidity). On the first and last days of HA, heat stress tests were conducted, whereby thermoregulatory changes were recorded during at a fixed, submaximal workload. The AB group undertook 20 km cycling time trials pre- and post-HA with performance compared to an AB, non-acclimated control group. Results: During the heat stress test, HA lowered core temperature (PARA: 0.27 ± 0.32°C; AB: 0.28 ± 0.34°C), blood lactate concentration (PARA: 0.23 ± 0.15 mmol l-1; AB: 0.38 ± 0.31 mmol l-1) with concomitant plasma volume expansion (PARA: 12.7 ± 10.6%; AB: 6.2 ± 7.7%; p ≤ 0.047). In the AB group, a lower skin temperature (0.19 ± 0.44°C) and HR (5 ± 6 bpm) with a greater sweat rate (0.17 ± 0.25 L h-1) were evident post-HA (p ≤ 0.045), but this was not present for the PARA group (p ≥ 0.177). The AB group improved their performance by an extent greater than the smallest worthwhile change based on the normal variation present with no HA (4.5 vs. 3.7%). Conclusions: Paratriathletes are capable of displaying partial HA, albeit not to same extent as AB triathletes. The HA protocol was effective at stimulating thermoregulatory adaptations with performance changes noted in AB triathletes. SN - 1664-042X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31616314/Mixed_Active_and_Passive,_Heart_Rate-Controlled_Heat_Acclimation_Is_Effective_for_Paralympic_and_Able-Bodied_Triathletes L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01214 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -