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Neck and shoulder pain among elementary school students: prevalence and its risk factors.
BMC Public Health 2019; 19(1):1299BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Neck and shoulder pain is relatively common among children and teenagers and has a negative impact on their physical and psychological health. This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain among elementary school students, and to investigate the relationship between this pain and its risk factors.

METHODS

In this cross-sectional study, 693 elementary school students aged 7 to 12 years from Hamadan city, located in western Iran, were selected through the multistage cluster random sampling method. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. For the social and psychological variables, the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used. For assessing each student's posture, an observational checklist, the Rapid Upper Limbs Assessment (RULA), was used. The data was analyzed using the unadjusted (univariate) and adjusted (multivariate) logistic regression.

RESULTS

The prevalence of the neck pain was slightly higher than that of shoulder pain. The prevalence reported over a month was 35.8 and 30.9% for neck and shoulder pain, respectively. The logistic regression analyses showed that, very high desk height (odds ratio (OR) =1.96, 95% confidence interval CI: 1.02-3.74), backward seat pan inclination (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.37-3.24), forward seat pan inclination (OR = 3.12, 95% CI:1.46-6.68), difficulty in viewing the board (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.10-5.84), too much homework (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.49-4.51), RULA score at level III (OR = 2.88, 95% CI:1.64-5.05), and RULA score at level IV (OR = 3.12, 95% CI: 1.72-5.63) increased the risk of neck pain independently. On the other hand, sitting on desk and seat (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39-0.91) and laying position for doing homework (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.81) reduced the related risk. Very short desk height (OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.26-4.61) and too much homework (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.10-3.42) increased the risk of shoulder pain.

CONCLUSION

The elementary school students reported a high prevalence of shoulder and neck pain. This study found that improper sitting positions, as well as physical factors such as the school furniture, too much homework, and difficulty in viewing the classroom board, were associated with pain. Proper interventions considering the risk factors assessed in this study, are suggested.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.Department of Occupational Health and Ergonomics, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.Department of Ergonomics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health Sciences Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Modeling of Non-communicable diseases research center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. forouzan.rezapour@gmail.com. Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. forouzan.rezapour@gmail.com. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. forouzan.rezapour@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31619204

Citation

Gheysvandi, Elham, et al. "Neck and Shoulder Pain Among Elementary School Students: Prevalence and Its Risk Factors." BMC Public Health, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 1299.
Gheysvandi E, Dianat I, Heidarimoghadam R, et al. Neck and shoulder pain among elementary school students: prevalence and its risk factors. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1299.
Gheysvandi, E., Dianat, I., Heidarimoghadam, R., Tapak, L., Karimi-Shahanjarini, A., & Rezapur-Shahkolai, F. (2019). Neck and shoulder pain among elementary school students: prevalence and its risk factors. BMC Public Health, 19(1), p. 1299. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7706-0.
Gheysvandi E, et al. Neck and Shoulder Pain Among Elementary School Students: Prevalence and Its Risk Factors. BMC Public Health. 2019 Oct 16;19(1):1299. PubMed PMID: 31619204.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neck and shoulder pain among elementary school students: prevalence and its risk factors. AU - Gheysvandi,Elham, AU - Dianat,Iman, AU - Heidarimoghadam,Rashid, AU - Tapak,Leili, AU - Karimi-Shahanjarini,Akram, AU - Rezapur-Shahkolai,Forouzan, Y1 - 2019/10/16/ PY - 2019/04/28/received PY - 2019/09/30/accepted PY - 2019/10/18/entrez PY - 2019/10/18/pubmed PY - 2019/10/18/medline KW - Adolescent KW - Children KW - Musculoskeletal complaints KW - Physical risk factors KW - Psychological risk factors; Posture. SP - 1299 EP - 1299 JF - BMC public health JO - BMC Public Health VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Neck and shoulder pain is relatively common among children and teenagers and has a negative impact on their physical and psychological health. This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain among elementary school students, and to investigate the relationship between this pain and its risk factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 693 elementary school students aged 7 to 12 years from Hamadan city, located in western Iran, were selected through the multistage cluster random sampling method. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. For the social and psychological variables, the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used. For assessing each student's posture, an observational checklist, the Rapid Upper Limbs Assessment (RULA), was used. The data was analyzed using the unadjusted (univariate) and adjusted (multivariate) logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of the neck pain was slightly higher than that of shoulder pain. The prevalence reported over a month was 35.8 and 30.9% for neck and shoulder pain, respectively. The logistic regression analyses showed that, very high desk height (odds ratio (OR) =1.96, 95% confidence interval CI: 1.02-3.74), backward seat pan inclination (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.37-3.24), forward seat pan inclination (OR = 3.12, 95% CI:1.46-6.68), difficulty in viewing the board (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.10-5.84), too much homework (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.49-4.51), RULA score at level III (OR = 2.88, 95% CI:1.64-5.05), and RULA score at level IV (OR = 3.12, 95% CI: 1.72-5.63) increased the risk of neck pain independently. On the other hand, sitting on desk and seat (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39-0.91) and laying position for doing homework (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.81) reduced the related risk. Very short desk height (OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.26-4.61) and too much homework (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.10-3.42) increased the risk of shoulder pain. CONCLUSION: The elementary school students reported a high prevalence of shoulder and neck pain. This study found that improper sitting positions, as well as physical factors such as the school furniture, too much homework, and difficulty in viewing the classroom board, were associated with pain. Proper interventions considering the risk factors assessed in this study, are suggested. SN - 1471-2458 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31619204/Neck_and_shoulder_pain_among_elementary_school_students:_prevalence_and_its_risk_factors L2 - https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-7706-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -