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Supernumerary kidneys: a clinical and radiological analysis of nine cases.
BMC Urol 2019; 19(1):93BU

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A supernumerary kidney (SK) is an additional kidney with its own capsule and blood supply that is not fused with the ipsilateral kidney (IK). Because individual case reports indicate a high morbidity rate, the aim of this retrospective study was a detailed analysis of this rare anatomical variant.

METHODS

Our systematic imaging-based search for SKs, conducted in the period from 2000 and to 2017, yielded 9 cases in total (5 men, 4 women; mean age: 51.8 ± 22.8 years).

RESULTS

The SKs were observed on the right in six and on the left side in three cases. In six subjects (66%) they were located caudal and in three cases (33%) cranial to the ipsilateral kidney. Calculi were found in three (33%) of the renal collecting systems. Five (56%) of the SKs had hydronephrosis grade IV and one SK had recurrent pyelonephritis (11%). Two of the ureters opened into the ipsilateral seminal vesicle (22%). Two (22%) SKs were functional but atrophic. Clinically relevant findings were made in 33% of the IKs: atrophy (n = 2), calculi (n = 1), and reflux with recurrent pyelonephritis (n = 1); another 33% had anatomical anomalies without functional impairment. The correct diagnosis of a SK is possible using CT imaging in all subjects. The prevalence of SK based on CT imaging can be estimated to be 1:26750.

CONCLUSIONS

CT is the method of choice for visualizing SKs. The correct diagnosis is crucial in preventing dispensable surgical procedures and for providing optimal patient treatment and outcome.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University Hospital for Urology, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraβe 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.Department of Neuroradiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraβe 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.University Hospital for Urology, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.University Hospital for Urology, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraβe 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. bernhard.glodny@i-med.ac.at.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31623590

Citation

Rehder, Peter, et al. "Supernumerary Kidneys: a Clinical and Radiological Analysis of Nine Cases." BMC Urology, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 93.
Rehder P, Rehwald R, Böhm JM, et al. Supernumerary kidneys: a clinical and radiological analysis of nine cases. BMC Urol. 2019;19(1):93.
Rehder, P., Rehwald, R., Böhm, J. M., Grams, A. E., Loizides, A., Pedrini, M., ... Glodny, B. (2019). Supernumerary kidneys: a clinical and radiological analysis of nine cases. BMC Urology, 19(1), p. 93. doi:10.1186/s12894-019-0522-0.
Rehder P, et al. Supernumerary Kidneys: a Clinical and Radiological Analysis of Nine Cases. BMC Urol. 2019 Oct 17;19(1):93. PubMed PMID: 31623590.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Supernumerary kidneys: a clinical and radiological analysis of nine cases. AU - Rehder,Peter, AU - Rehwald,Rafael, AU - Böhm,Julia M, AU - Grams,Astrid E, AU - Loizides,Alexander, AU - Pedrini,Marco, AU - Stühmeier,Jannik, AU - Glodny,Bernhard, Y1 - 2019/10/17/ PY - 2019/02/08/received PY - 2019/09/20/accepted PY - 2019/10/19/entrez PY - 2019/10/19/pubmed PY - 2019/10/19/medline KW - Computed tomography KW - Diagnostic imaging KW - Duplex kidneys KW - Renal variants KW - Supernumerary kidneys KW - Ureter fissus SP - 93 EP - 93 JF - BMC urology JO - BMC Urol VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: A supernumerary kidney (SK) is an additional kidney with its own capsule and blood supply that is not fused with the ipsilateral kidney (IK). Because individual case reports indicate a high morbidity rate, the aim of this retrospective study was a detailed analysis of this rare anatomical variant. METHODS: Our systematic imaging-based search for SKs, conducted in the period from 2000 and to 2017, yielded 9 cases in total (5 men, 4 women; mean age: 51.8 ± 22.8 years). RESULTS: The SKs were observed on the right in six and on the left side in three cases. In six subjects (66%) they were located caudal and in three cases (33%) cranial to the ipsilateral kidney. Calculi were found in three (33%) of the renal collecting systems. Five (56%) of the SKs had hydronephrosis grade IV and one SK had recurrent pyelonephritis (11%). Two of the ureters opened into the ipsilateral seminal vesicle (22%). Two (22%) SKs were functional but atrophic. Clinically relevant findings were made in 33% of the IKs: atrophy (n = 2), calculi (n = 1), and reflux with recurrent pyelonephritis (n = 1); another 33% had anatomical anomalies without functional impairment. The correct diagnosis of a SK is possible using CT imaging in all subjects. The prevalence of SK based on CT imaging can be estimated to be 1:26750. CONCLUSIONS: CT is the method of choice for visualizing SKs. The correct diagnosis is crucial in preventing dispensable surgical procedures and for providing optimal patient treatment and outcome. SN - 1471-2490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31623590/Supernumerary_kidneys:_a_clinical_and_radiological_analysis_of_nine_cases L2 - https://bmcurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12894-019-0522-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -