mcr-1 encoding colistin resistance in CTX-M-1/CTX-M-15- producing Escherichia coli isolates of bovine and caprine origins in Tunisia. First report of CTX-M-15-ST394/D E. coli from goats.Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 67:101366CI
The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) from raw bovine and caprine milk samples, as well as from bovine faeces in Tunisia. Therefore, 120 bovine faecal samples and 9 caprine raw milk samples were collected from 2 extensive dairy-cow-farms and 5 ovine farms, respectively. In addition, 94 raw bovine milk samples, from containers and holding tanks from 50 small public-markets in the North of Tunisia, were processed for the isolation of cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (CTXR). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disc-diffusion/broth-microdilution methods. The presence of genes encoding ESBL, as well as those encoding colistin (mcr-1 to 5 genes)- sulfonamide-, tetracycline-, gentamicin-, quinolone and chloramphenicol-resistance and class 1 integrons were tested by PCR (and sequencing in some cases). ESBL-EC isolates were further characterized by phylogrouping and MLST/PFGE typing. Eight samples (3.6%) contained ESBL-EC isolates (3/2 from raw bovine/goat milk and 3 from cattle faeces) and one isolate/sample was characterized. Four ESBL-EC isolates, all of bovine origin (3 faeces/1 milk), were resistant to colistin (MIC: 8-16 μg/ml), harboured the mcr-1 gene and carried IncP- and IncFIB-type plasmids. The 8 ESBL-EC strains had the following characteristics: a) bovine faeces: mcr-1/CTX-M-1/D-ST1642 (3 strains); b) raw milk: mcr-1/CTX-M-1/A-ST10 (1 strain); CTX-M-15/B1-ST394 (3 strains), and CTX-M-15/A-ST46 (1 strain). Most of bovine ESBL-EC isolates were multidrug-resistant (4/5). Our results showed that ESBL-EC were detected in bovine and caprine samples (CTX-M-1/CTX-M-15 producers), being some of them colistin-resistant (associated with mcr-1 gene), and they belonged to international clonal lineages.