Kawasaki disease triggered by EBV virus in a child with Familial Mediterranean Fever.Ital J Pediatr 2019; 45(1):129IJ
Familial Mediterranean Fever is a monogenic autoinflammatory disease, secondary to mutation of MEFV gene, and typically expressed with recurrent attacks of fever, serositis, rash, aphthous changes in lips and/or oral mucosa. Kawasaki Disease, an acute systemic vasculitis with persistent fever (5 or more days), rash, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, changes in extremities, is currently considered a multifactorial autoinflammatory disease. An infection, as Epstein Barr virus, can be the trigger of Kawasaki Disease.
We describe the clinical case of a 3-year-old boy with Kawasaki disease. Successfully treated with intravenous immune globulin, acetyl salicylate acid, he late developed anaemia and thrombocytopenia. The Epstein-Barr virus infection has been demonstrated and he showed a resolution of the clinical manifestations of Kawasaki disease with the persistence of coronaritis, without aneurisms. However, for the personal and familial history of monthly recurrent attacks of fever, pharyngitis, abdominal pain, the genetic study of MEFV was performed and demonstrated 3 heterozygous mutations of MEFV (E148Q, P369S, R408Q).
Mutations of MEFV can contribute to increase inflammatory expression in other diseases, as Kawasaki disease.