Wild Bonelli's eagles (Aquila fasciata) as carrier of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain.Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 67:101372CI
Wild birds have repeatedly been found to be involved in the dissemination of enteric bacterial pathogens in the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter as well as the antimicrobial resistance in wild Bonelli's eagles nestlings in Eastern Spain. In addition, we compared the efficiency of two sampling methods (fresh faecal samples from nest and cloacal swabs from nestlings) for detection of both bacteria. A total of 28 nests with 45 nestlings were analysed. In the nest, Salmonella occurrence was 61 ± 9.2%, while Campylobacter occurrence was 11 ± 5.8% (p < 0.05). In the nestlings, Salmonella occurrence was 36 ± 7.1%, while Campylobacter occurrence was 11 ± 4.7% (p < 0.05). Eight Salmonella serovars were identified, and the most frequently isolated were S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Houston, and S. Cerro. Only one Campylobacter species was identified (C. jejuni). Regarding antimicrobial resistance, the Salmonella strains isolated were found to be most frequently resistant to ampicillin and to tigecycline; however, the sole Campylobacter strain recovered was multidrug resistant. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that wild Bonelli's eagles nestlings are greater carriers of Salmonella than of Campylobacter. Both Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance. In addition, faecal samples from nests were most reliable for Salmonella detection, while cloacal swab from nestlings were most reliable for Campylobacter detection.