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Bacterial transportable toxins of the nasopharyngeal microbiota in multiple sclerosis. Nose-to-brain direct.

Abstract

Intranasal administration delivers molecules directly to the brain bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Three distinct routes of access have been identified; olfactory, trigeminal and via the paranasal sub-mucosa of the posterior sinuses. Consequently, environmental toxins may access the CNS directly to induce inflammatory and degenerative disease. They may also activate bacterial species of the nasal mucosal microbiome to release both immune-deviating cell wall antigens and transportable neurotoxins with local direct access to the CNS. Evidence is reviewed that toxins of the nasal bacterial microbiota may be directly implicated in the inflammatory and degenerative pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, 68, coast road West Mersea, CO5 8LS Colchester, United Kingdom. Electronic address: fwg@greenstorthe.co.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31629544

Citation

Gay, F. "Bacterial Transportable Toxins of the Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis. Nose-to-brain Direct." Revue Neurologique, 2019.
Gay F. Bacterial transportable toxins of the nasopharyngeal microbiota in multiple sclerosis. Nose-to-brain direct. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2019.
Gay, F. (2019). Bacterial transportable toxins of the nasopharyngeal microbiota in multiple sclerosis. Nose-to-brain direct. Revue Neurologique, doi:10.1016/j.neurol.2019.09.004.
Gay F. Bacterial Transportable Toxins of the Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis. Nose-to-brain Direct. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2019 Oct 16; PubMed PMID: 31629544.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Bacterial transportable toxins of the nasopharyngeal microbiota in multiple sclerosis. Nose-to-brain direct. A1 - Gay,F, Y1 - 2019/10/16/ PY - 2019/04/06/received PY - 2019/09/02/revised PY - 2019/09/02/accepted PY - 2019/10/21/entrez PY - 2019/10/21/pubmed PY - 2019/10/21/medline JF - Revue neurologique JO - Rev. Neurol. (Paris) N2 - Intranasal administration delivers molecules directly to the brain bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Three distinct routes of access have been identified; olfactory, trigeminal and via the paranasal sub-mucosa of the posterior sinuses. Consequently, environmental toxins may access the CNS directly to induce inflammatory and degenerative disease. They may also activate bacterial species of the nasal mucosal microbiome to release both immune-deviating cell wall antigens and transportable neurotoxins with local direct access to the CNS. Evidence is reviewed that toxins of the nasal bacterial microbiota may be directly implicated in the inflammatory and degenerative pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. SN - 0035-3787 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31629544/Bacterial_transportable_toxins_of_the_nasopharyngeal_microbiota_in_multiple_sclerosis._Nose-to-brain_direct L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0035-3787(19)30588-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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