Bacterial transportable toxins of the nasopharyngeal microbiota in multiple sclerosis. Nose-to-brain direct.Rev Neurol (Paris) 2019RN
Intranasal administration delivers molecules directly to the brain bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Three distinct routes of access have been identified; olfactory, trigeminal and via the paranasal sub-mucosa of the posterior sinuses. Consequently, environmental toxins may access the CNS directly to induce inflammatory and degenerative disease. They may also activate bacterial species of the nasal mucosal microbiome to release both immune-deviating cell wall antigens and transportable neurotoxins with local direct access to the CNS. Evidence is reviewed that toxins of the nasal bacterial microbiota may be directly implicated in the inflammatory and degenerative pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.