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Associations of Olfactory Dysfunction with Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Measures: Findings from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Physiol Behav 2019; :112702PB

Abstract

We examined associations of olfactory dysfunction with anthropometric and cardiometabolic measures in a nationally representative sample of US adults. In the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 3,815 participants, 40 years and older, completed a standardized taste and smell protocol, which consisted of an 8-item odor identification test and a chemosensory questionnaire. Measured dysfunction was incorrect identification of ≥3 of 8 odors; self-reported dysfunction was affirmative response to either a recent smell problem, worse ability since age 25, or phantosmia. Survey-weighted linear regression models tested associations of olfactory dysfunction with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, serum total cholesterol (TC) with fractions, triglycerides, and glucose levels. Models were adjusted for age, race, education, physical activity, self-reported general health condition, smoking history, and income-to-poverty ratio, stratifying by sex and age group (middle-age 40-64 years; older ≥65 years). Relative to normal, measured olfactory dysfunction was associated with lower BMI [β=-1.6 (95% CI: -3.2, -0.01)] in older men. In middle-age women, dysfunction was associated with higher BMI and WC, whether assessed by examination [β's for BMI=3.1 (0.6, 5.5), WC=5.0 (0.3, 9.8)] or self-report [β's for BMI=2.5 (0.6, 4.3), WC=6.1 (2.2, 9.9)]. Measured dysfunction was associated with significantly higher TC [β=12.8 (7.5, 18.1)] and LDL [β=18.1 (9.1, 27.2)] among older men, but significantly lower TC [β=-15.0 (-25.0, -5.7)] and marginally lower LDL [β=-12.0 (-25.0, 1.2)] among older women. Between measured dysfunction and fasting glucose, the association was inverse [β=-7.9 (-13.0, -2.6)] among middle-age men, but positive [β=15.6 (1.5, 29.7)] among older women. No significant associations were observed with blood pressure levels. In conclusion, among US adults ≥40 years, olfactory dysfunction is associated with anthropometric and glucose and lipid levels, with associations varying by sex and age group.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical and Preventive Nutrition Sciences, Rutgers School of Health Professions, 65 Bergen St., Newark, NJ 07107-1709 USA. Electronic address: gallosc@shp.rutgers.edu.Department of Clinical and Preventive Nutrition Sciences, Rutgers School of Health Professions, 65 Bergen St., Newark, NJ 07107-1709 USA. Electronic address: byhamgld@shp.rutgers.edu.Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, 358 Mansfield Rd, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address: valerie.duffy@uconn.edu.Epidemiology and Statistics Program, Division of Scientific Programs, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 10 Center Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address: hoffmanh@ms.nidcd.nih.gov.Sensory Evaluation Center, The Pennsylvania State University, 220 Erickson Food Science Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 220 Erickson Food Science Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address: jeh40@psu.edu.Department of Clinical and Preventive Nutrition Sciences, Rutgers School of Health Professions, 65 Bergen St., Newark, NJ 07107-1709 USA. Electronic address: shristi.rawal@rutgers.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31629766

Citation

Gallo, Samantha, et al. "Associations of Olfactory Dysfunction With Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Measures: Findings From the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)." Physiology & Behavior, 2019, p. 112702.
Gallo S, Byham-Gray L, Duffy VB, et al. Associations of Olfactory Dysfunction with Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Measures: Findings from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Physiol Behav. 2019.
Gallo, S., Byham-Gray, L., Duffy, V. B., Hoffman, H. J., Hayes, J. E., & Rawal, S. (2019). Associations of Olfactory Dysfunction with Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Measures: Findings from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Physiology & Behavior, p. 112702. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112702.
Gallo S, et al. Associations of Olfactory Dysfunction With Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Measures: Findings From the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Physiol Behav. 2019 Oct 17;112702. PubMed PMID: 31629766.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Associations of Olfactory Dysfunction with Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Measures: Findings from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). AU - Gallo,Samantha, AU - Byham-Gray,Laura, AU - Duffy,Valerie B, AU - Hoffman,Howard J, AU - Hayes,John E, AU - Rawal,Shristi, Y1 - 2019/10/17/ PY - 2019/05/10/received PY - 2019/10/04/revised PY - 2019/10/06/accepted PY - 2019/10/21/entrez PY - 2019/10/21/pubmed PY - 2019/10/21/medline KW - Adiposity KW - Cardiometabolic health KW - NHANES KW - Odor identification KW - Olfaction KW - Phantosmia SP - 112702 EP - 112702 JF - Physiology & behavior JO - Physiol. Behav. N2 - We examined associations of olfactory dysfunction with anthropometric and cardiometabolic measures in a nationally representative sample of US adults. In the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 3,815 participants, 40 years and older, completed a standardized taste and smell protocol, which consisted of an 8-item odor identification test and a chemosensory questionnaire. Measured dysfunction was incorrect identification of ≥3 of 8 odors; self-reported dysfunction was affirmative response to either a recent smell problem, worse ability since age 25, or phantosmia. Survey-weighted linear regression models tested associations of olfactory dysfunction with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, serum total cholesterol (TC) with fractions, triglycerides, and glucose levels. Models were adjusted for age, race, education, physical activity, self-reported general health condition, smoking history, and income-to-poverty ratio, stratifying by sex and age group (middle-age 40-64 years; older ≥65 years). Relative to normal, measured olfactory dysfunction was associated with lower BMI [β=-1.6 (95% CI: -3.2, -0.01)] in older men. In middle-age women, dysfunction was associated with higher BMI and WC, whether assessed by examination [β's for BMI=3.1 (0.6, 5.5), WC=5.0 (0.3, 9.8)] or self-report [β's for BMI=2.5 (0.6, 4.3), WC=6.1 (2.2, 9.9)]. Measured dysfunction was associated with significantly higher TC [β=12.8 (7.5, 18.1)] and LDL [β=18.1 (9.1, 27.2)] among older men, but significantly lower TC [β=-15.0 (-25.0, -5.7)] and marginally lower LDL [β=-12.0 (-25.0, 1.2)] among older women. Between measured dysfunction and fasting glucose, the association was inverse [β=-7.9 (-13.0, -2.6)] among middle-age men, but positive [β=15.6 (1.5, 29.7)] among older women. No significant associations were observed with blood pressure levels. In conclusion, among US adults ≥40 years, olfactory dysfunction is associated with anthropometric and glucose and lipid levels, with associations varying by sex and age group. SN - 1873-507X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31629766/Associations_of_Olfactory_Dysfunction_with_Anthropometric_and_Cardiometabolic_Measures:_Findings_from_the_2013-2014_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey_(NHANES) L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031-9384(19)30476-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -