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Differential relationship between state-level minimum wage and infant mortality risk among US infants born to white and black mothers.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Compared to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations, US infant mortality rates (IMRs) are particularly high. These differences are partially driven by racial disparities, with non-Hispanic black having IMRs that are twice those of non-Hispanic white. Income inequality (the gap between rich and poor) is associated with infant mortality. One proposed way to decrease income inequality (and possibly to improve birth outcomes) is to increase the minimum wage. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between state-level minimum wage and infant mortality risk using individual-level and state-level data. We also determined whether observed associations were heterogeneous across racial groups.

METHODS

Data were from US Vital Statistics 2010 Cohort Linked Birth and Infant Death records and the 2010 US Bureau of Labor Statistics. We fit multilevel logistic models to test whether state minimum wage was associated with infant mortality. Minimum wage was standardised using the z-transformation and was dichotomised (high vs low) at the 75th percentile. Analyses were stratified by mother's race (non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white).

RESULTS

High minimum wage (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.03) was associated with decreased odds of infant mortality but was not statistically significant. High minimum wage was significantly associated with reduced infant mortality among non-Hispanic black infants (AOR=0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.94) but not among non-Hispanic white infants (AOR=1.04, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.17).

CONCLUSIONS

Increasing the minimum wage might be beneficial to infant health, especially among non-Hispanic black infants, and thus might decrease the racial disparity in infant mortality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA.School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA.School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA. Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA.Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, New York, USA.School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada pabayo@ualberta.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31630121

Citation

Rosenquist, Natalie A., et al. "Differential Relationship Between State-level Minimum Wage and Infant Mortality Risk Among US Infants Born to White and Black Mothers." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2019.
Rosenquist NA, Cook DM, Ehntholt A, et al. Differential relationship between state-level minimum wage and infant mortality risk among US infants born to white and black mothers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019.
Rosenquist, N. A., Cook, D. M., Ehntholt, A., Omaye, A., Muennig, P., & Pabayo, R. (2019). Differential relationship between state-level minimum wage and infant mortality risk among US infants born to white and black mothers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, doi:10.1136/jech-2019-212987.
Rosenquist NA, et al. Differential Relationship Between State-level Minimum Wage and Infant Mortality Risk Among US Infants Born to White and Black Mothers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019 Oct 19; PubMed PMID: 31630121.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Differential relationship between state-level minimum wage and infant mortality risk among US infants born to white and black mothers. AU - Rosenquist,Natalie A, AU - Cook,Daniel M, AU - Ehntholt,Amy, AU - Omaye,Anthony, AU - Muennig,Peter, AU - Pabayo,Roman, Y1 - 2019/10/19/ PY - 2019/07/29/received PY - 2019/09/24/revised PY - 2019/09/28/accepted PY - 2019/10/21/entrez PY - 2019/10/21/pubmed PY - 2019/10/21/medline KW - health inequalities KW - inequalities KW - infant mortality KW - social epidemiology JF - Journal of epidemiology and community health JO - J Epidemiol Community Health N2 - BACKGROUND: Compared to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations, US infant mortality rates (IMRs) are particularly high. These differences are partially driven by racial disparities, with non-Hispanic black having IMRs that are twice those of non-Hispanic white. Income inequality (the gap between rich and poor) is associated with infant mortality. One proposed way to decrease income inequality (and possibly to improve birth outcomes) is to increase the minimum wage. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between state-level minimum wage and infant mortality risk using individual-level and state-level data. We also determined whether observed associations were heterogeneous across racial groups. METHODS: Data were from US Vital Statistics 2010 Cohort Linked Birth and Infant Death records and the 2010 US Bureau of Labor Statistics. We fit multilevel logistic models to test whether state minimum wage was associated with infant mortality. Minimum wage was standardised using the z-transformation and was dichotomised (high vs low) at the 75th percentile. Analyses were stratified by mother's race (non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white). RESULTS: High minimum wage (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.03) was associated with decreased odds of infant mortality but was not statistically significant. High minimum wage was significantly associated with reduced infant mortality among non-Hispanic black infants (AOR=0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.94) but not among non-Hispanic white infants (AOR=1.04, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.17). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the minimum wage might be beneficial to infant health, especially among non-Hispanic black infants, and thus might decrease the racial disparity in infant mortality. SN - 1470-2738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31630121/Differential_relationship_between_state-level_minimum_wage_and_infant_mortality_risk_among_US_infants_born_to_white_and_black_mothers L2 - http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=31630121 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -