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Growth hormone regulates opsin expression in the retina of a salmonid fish.
J Neuroendocrinol 2019; :e12804JN

Abstract

Colour vision relies on retinal photoreceptors that express a different predominant visual pigment protein (opsin). In several vertebrates, the primary opsin expressed by a photoreceptor can change throughout ontogeny, although the molecular factors that influence such regulation are poorly understood. One of these factors is thyroid hormone which, together with its receptors, modulates opsin expression in the retinas of multiple vertebrates including rodents and salmonid fishes. In the latter, thyroid hormone induces a switch in opsin expression from SWS1 (ultraviolet light sensitive) to SWS2 (short wavelength or blue light sensitive) in the single cone photoreceptors of the retina. The actions of other hormones on opsin expression have not been investigated. In the present study, we used a transgenic strain of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kitsutch) with enhanced levels of circulating growth hormone compared to that of wild siblings to assess the effects of this hormone on the SWS1 to SWS2 opsin switch. Transgenic fish showed a developmentally accelerated opsin switch compared to size-matched controls as assessed by immunohistological and in situ hybridisation labelling of photoreceptors and by quantification of transcripts using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This accelerated switch led to a different spectral sensitivity maximum, under a middle to long wavelength adapting background, from ultraviolet (λmax ~ 380 nm) in controls to short wavelengths (λmax ~ 430 nm) in transgenics, demonstrating altered colour vision. The effects of growth hormone over-expression were independent of circulating levels of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine), the hormone typically associated with opsin switches in vertebrates.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada. Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.Fisheries and Oceans Canada, West Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31630448

Citation

Novales Flamarique, Inigo, et al. "Growth Hormone Regulates Opsin Expression in the Retina of a Salmonid Fish." Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 2019, pp. e12804.
Novales Flamarique I, Sayed Ahmed A, Cheng CL, et al. Growth hormone regulates opsin expression in the retina of a salmonid fish. J Neuroendocrinol. 2019.
Novales Flamarique, I., Sayed Ahmed, A., Cheng, C. L., Molday, R. S., & Devlin, R. H. (2019). Growth hormone regulates opsin expression in the retina of a salmonid fish. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, pp. e12804. doi:10.1111/jne.12804.
Novales Flamarique I, et al. Growth Hormone Regulates Opsin Expression in the Retina of a Salmonid Fish. J Neuroendocrinol. 2019 Oct 20;e12804. PubMed PMID: 31630448.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Growth hormone regulates opsin expression in the retina of a salmonid fish. AU - Novales Flamarique,Inigo, AU - Sayed Ahmed,Ahmed, AU - Cheng,Christiana L, AU - Molday,Robert S, AU - Devlin,Robert H, Y1 - 2019/10/20/ PY - 2019/03/04/received PY - 2019/09/07/revised PY - 2019/10/18/accepted PY - 2019/10/21/pubmed PY - 2019/10/21/medline PY - 2019/10/21/entrez KW - fish KW - growth hormone KW - opsin KW - retina KW - visual pigment SP - e12804 EP - e12804 JF - Journal of neuroendocrinology JO - J. Neuroendocrinol. N2 - Colour vision relies on retinal photoreceptors that express a different predominant visual pigment protein (opsin). In several vertebrates, the primary opsin expressed by a photoreceptor can change throughout ontogeny, although the molecular factors that influence such regulation are poorly understood. One of these factors is thyroid hormone which, together with its receptors, modulates opsin expression in the retinas of multiple vertebrates including rodents and salmonid fishes. In the latter, thyroid hormone induces a switch in opsin expression from SWS1 (ultraviolet light sensitive) to SWS2 (short wavelength or blue light sensitive) in the single cone photoreceptors of the retina. The actions of other hormones on opsin expression have not been investigated. In the present study, we used a transgenic strain of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kitsutch) with enhanced levels of circulating growth hormone compared to that of wild siblings to assess the effects of this hormone on the SWS1 to SWS2 opsin switch. Transgenic fish showed a developmentally accelerated opsin switch compared to size-matched controls as assessed by immunohistological and in situ hybridisation labelling of photoreceptors and by quantification of transcripts using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This accelerated switch led to a different spectral sensitivity maximum, under a middle to long wavelength adapting background, from ultraviolet (λmax ~ 380 nm) in controls to short wavelengths (λmax ~ 430 nm) in transgenics, demonstrating altered colour vision. The effects of growth hormone over-expression were independent of circulating levels of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine), the hormone typically associated with opsin switches in vertebrates. SN - 1365-2826 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31630448/Growth_hormone_regulates_opsin_expression_in_the_retina_of_a_salmonid_fish L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jne.12804 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -