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Assessing immunocompetence in red palm weevil adult and immature stages in response to bacterial challenge and entomopathogenic nematode infection.
Insect Sci 2019IS

Abstract

Parasites and pathogens can follow different patterns of infection depending on the host developmental stage or sex. In fact, immune function is energetically costly for hosts and trade-offs exist between immune defenses and life history traits as growth, development and reproduction and organisms should thus optimize immune defense through their life cycle according to their developmental stage. Identifying the most susceptible target and the most virulent pathogen is particularly important in the case of insect pests, in order to develop effective control strategies targeting the most vulnerable individuals with the most effective control agent. Here, we carried out laboratory tests to identify the most susceptible target of infection by infecting different stages of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (larvae, pupae, male, and female adults) with both a generic pathogen, antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli XL1-Blue, and two specific strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), Steinernema carpocapsae ItS-CAO1 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora ItH-LU1. By evaluating bacterial clearance, host mortality and parasite progeny release, we demonstrate that larvae are more resistant than adults to bacterial challenge and they release less EPNs progeny after infection despite a higher mortality compared to adults. Considering the two EPN strains, S. carpocapsae was more virulent than H. bacteriophora both in terms of host mortality and more abundant progeny released by hosts after death. The outcomes attained with unspecific and specific pathogens provide useful information for a more efficient and sustainable management of this invasive pest.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.CREA Research Centre for Plant Protection and Certification, Florence, Italy.CREA Research Centre for Plant Protection and Certification, Florence, Italy.Department of Biology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.CREA Research Centre for Plant Protection and Certification, Florence, Italy.Department of Biology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.CREA Research Centre for Plant Protection and Certification, Florence, Italy.Department of Biology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31633276

Citation

Cappa, Federico, et al. "Assessing Immunocompetence in Red Palm Weevil Adult and Immature Stages in Response to Bacterial Challenge and Entomopathogenic Nematode Infection." Insect Science, 2019.
Cappa F, Torrini G, Mazza G, et al. Assessing immunocompetence in red palm weevil adult and immature stages in response to bacterial challenge and entomopathogenic nematode infection. Insect Sci. 2019.
Cappa, F., Torrini, G., Mazza, G., Inghilesi, A. F., Benvenuti, C., Viliani, L., ... Cervo, R. (2019). Assessing immunocompetence in red palm weevil adult and immature stages in response to bacterial challenge and entomopathogenic nematode infection. Insect Science, doi:10.1111/1744-7917.12732.
Cappa F, et al. Assessing Immunocompetence in Red Palm Weevil Adult and Immature Stages in Response to Bacterial Challenge and Entomopathogenic Nematode Infection. Insect Sci. 2019 Oct 21; PubMed PMID: 31633276.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing immunocompetence in red palm weevil adult and immature stages in response to bacterial challenge and entomopathogenic nematode infection. AU - Cappa,Federico, AU - Torrini,Giulia, AU - Mazza,Giuseppe, AU - Inghilesi,Alberto Francesco, AU - Benvenuti,Claudia, AU - Viliani,Leonardo, AU - Roversi,Pio Federico, AU - Cervo,Rita, Y1 - 2019/10/21/ PY - 2019/06/23/received PY - 2019/09/08/revised PY - 2019/10/08/accepted PY - 2019/10/22/pubmed PY - 2019/10/22/medline PY - 2019/10/22/entrez KW - Escherichia coli KW - Heterorhabditis bacteriophora KW - Rhynchophorus ferrugineus KW - Steinernema carpocapsae KW - immune response KW - pathogens JF - Insect science JO - Insect Sci. N2 - Parasites and pathogens can follow different patterns of infection depending on the host developmental stage or sex. In fact, immune function is energetically costly for hosts and trade-offs exist between immune defenses and life history traits as growth, development and reproduction and organisms should thus optimize immune defense through their life cycle according to their developmental stage. Identifying the most susceptible target and the most virulent pathogen is particularly important in the case of insect pests, in order to develop effective control strategies targeting the most vulnerable individuals with the most effective control agent. Here, we carried out laboratory tests to identify the most susceptible target of infection by infecting different stages of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (larvae, pupae, male, and female adults) with both a generic pathogen, antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli XL1-Blue, and two specific strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), Steinernema carpocapsae ItS-CAO1 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora ItH-LU1. By evaluating bacterial clearance, host mortality and parasite progeny release, we demonstrate that larvae are more resistant than adults to bacterial challenge and they release less EPNs progeny after infection despite a higher mortality compared to adults. Considering the two EPN strains, S. carpocapsae was more virulent than H. bacteriophora both in terms of host mortality and more abundant progeny released by hosts after death. The outcomes attained with unspecific and specific pathogens provide useful information for a more efficient and sustainable management of this invasive pest. SN - 1744-7917 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31633276/Assessing_immunocompetence_in_red_palm_weevil_adult_and_immature_stages_in_response_to_bacterial_challenge_and_entomopathogenic_nematode_infection L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12732 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -