Meningococcal Serogroup B Disease in Vaccinated Children.J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019JP
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) is the most frequent cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Spain. The multicomponent vaccine against MenB (4CMenB) was approved in Spain in January 2014.
We present 4 cases of children who developed MenB-associated IMD despite previous vaccination with 4CMenB. Extensive immunologic diagnostic work-up was performed in order to rule out any immunodeficiency. Also, molecular characterization of the MenB strain was conducted to determine whether bacterial antigens matched vaccine antigens.
Among the 4 patients (2 girls), 2 had previous risk factors for IMD (recurrent bacterial meningitis of unknown origin and treatment with eculizumab). All patients developed meningitis, but only 2 developed septic shock; they were all cured without sequelae. No other primary or secondary immunodeficiencies were detected. MenB sequence type 213 was identified in 3 cases. With the exception of neisserial heparin-binding antigen peptide 465 present in 1 isolate, the rest of the isolated strains harbored vaccine antigen variants that did not match antigen variants included in the vaccine.
We present 4 children who developed MenB-associated IMD despite previous vaccination with 4CMenB. In 2 cases, the antibodies induced by 4CMenB likely were not effective against the isolated strains. A high level of suspicion for IMD seems advisable regardless of the patient's vaccination history.