Degradation of imidacloprid by UV-activated persulfate and peroxymonosulfate processes: Kinetics, impact of key factors and degradation pathway.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Jan 15; 187:109779.EE
UV-activated persulfate (UV/PS) and peroxymonosulfate (UV/PMS) processes as alternative methods for removal of imidacloprid (IMP) were conducted for the first time. The reaction rate constants between IMP and the sulfate or hydroxyl radical were calculated as 2.33×109 or 2.42×1010 M-1 s-1, respectively. The degradation of IMP was greatly improved by UV/PS and UV/PMS compared with only UV or oxidant. At any given dosage, UV/PS achieved higher IMP removal rate than UV/PMS. The pH range affecting the degradation in the UV/PS and UV/PMS systems were different in the ranges of 6-8 and 9 to 10. SO42-, F- and NO3- had no obvious effect on the degradation in the UV/PS and UV/PMS systems. CO32- and PO43- inhibited the degradation of IMP in the UV/PS system, while they enhanced the degradation in the UV/PMS system. Algae organic matters (AOM) were used to consider the impact of the degradation of IMP for the first time. The removal of IMP were restrained by both AOM and natural organic matters. The higher removal rate of IMP demonstrated that both UV/PS and UV/PMS were suitable for treating the water containing IMP, while UV/PS was cost-effective than UV/PMS based on the total cost calculation. Finally, the degradation pathways of IMP were proposed.