Parental tobacco smoking and risk of childhood leukemia in Costa Rica: A population-based case-control study.Environ Res. 2020 01; 180:108827.ER
The role of environmental and behavioral exposures on childhood leukemia etiology is poorly understood. We examined the association of maternal and paternal tobacco smoking at different time points with the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Costa Rican children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We conducted a population-based case-control study on childhood leukemia in Costa Rica. Cases (n ALL = 252; n AML = 40) were diagnosed between 1995 and 2000 (aged <15 years at diagnosis) and identified from the Costa Rican Cancer Registry and the National Children's Hospital. A total of 578 frequency-matched population controls were sampled from the National Birth Registry. Parental tobacco smoking was assessed via face-to-face interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association of paternal and maternal tobacco smoking before conception, during pregnancy, and after birth with childhood ALL and AML risk, adjusted for child sex, birth year, maternal/paternal age, and parental education.
Paternal smoking before conception, during pregnancy, and after birth was associated with an increased risk of childhood AML (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.51, 95% CI: 1.21-5.17; OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.56-6.60; and OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.36-5.90, respectively). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was also associated with a modest, but imprecise increase in AML risk. We observed null associations of maternal and paternal smoking with ALL in the offspring.
Our results suggest an association between parental smoking and risk of AML, but not ALL, in Costa Rican children. These findings add to the established evidence of numerous health risks associated with smoking and highlight the potential harm of smoking during sensitive windows of the development of fetus and child.