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Gender discrimination in the United States: Experiences of women.
Health Serv Res. 2019 12; 54 Suppl 2:1442-1453.HS

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine reported experiences of gender discrimination and harassment among US women.

DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN

Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey of 1596 women, conducted January-April 2017.

METHODS

We calculated the percentages of women reporting gender discrimination and harassment in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to examine variation in experiences among women by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation/gender identity.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

Sizable fractions of women experience discrimination and harassment, including discrimination in health care (18 percent), equal pay/promotions (41 percent), and higher education (20 percent). In adjusted models, Native American, black, and Latina women had higher odds than white women of reporting gender discrimination in several domains, including health care. Latinas' odds of health care avoidance versus whites was (OR [95% CI]) 3.69 (1.59, 8.58), while blacks' odds of discrimination in health care visits versus whites was 2.00 [1.06, 3.74]. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) women had higher odds of reporting sexual harassment (2.16 [1.06, 4.40]) and violence (2.71 [1.43, 5.16]) against themselves or female family members than non-LGBTQ women.

CONCLUSIONS

Results suggest that discrimination and harassment are widely experienced by women across multiple domains of their lives, particularly those who are a racial/ethnic minority or LGBTQ. Further policy and programmatic efforts beyond current legal protections for women are needed to meaningfully reduce these negative experiences, as they impact women's health care and their lives overall.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.Research, Evaluation, and Learning Unit, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31663120

Citation

SteelFisher, Gillian K., et al. "Gender Discrimination in the United States: Experiences of Women." Health Services Research, vol. 54 Suppl 2, 2019, pp. 1442-1453.
SteelFisher GK, Findling MG, Bleich SN, et al. Gender discrimination in the United States: Experiences of women. Health Serv Res. 2019;54 Suppl 2:1442-1453.
SteelFisher, G. K., Findling, M. G., Bleich, S. N., Casey, L. S., Blendon, R. J., Benson, J. M., Sayde, J. M., & Miller, C. (2019). Gender discrimination in the United States: Experiences of women. Health Services Research, 54 Suppl 2, 1442-1453. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13217
SteelFisher GK, et al. Gender Discrimination in the United States: Experiences of Women. Health Serv Res. 2019;54 Suppl 2:1442-1453. PubMed PMID: 31663120.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gender discrimination in the United States: Experiences of women. AU - SteelFisher,Gillian K, AU - Findling,Mary G, AU - Bleich,Sara N, AU - Casey,Logan S, AU - Blendon,Robert J, AU - Benson,John M, AU - Sayde,Justin M, AU - Miller,Carolyn, Y1 - 2019/10/29/ PY - 2019/10/31/pubmed PY - 2020/1/29/medline PY - 2019/10/31/entrez KW - LGBTQ health KW - discrimination KW - gender and health KW - racial/ethnic differences in health and health care KW - social determinants of health KW - survey research and questionnaire design KW - women's health SP - 1442 EP - 1453 JF - Health services research JO - Health Serv Res VL - 54 Suppl 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine reported experiences of gender discrimination and harassment among US women. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey of 1596 women, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percentages of women reporting gender discrimination and harassment in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to examine variation in experiences among women by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation/gender identity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sizable fractions of women experience discrimination and harassment, including discrimination in health care (18 percent), equal pay/promotions (41 percent), and higher education (20 percent). In adjusted models, Native American, black, and Latina women had higher odds than white women of reporting gender discrimination in several domains, including health care. Latinas' odds of health care avoidance versus whites was (OR [95% CI]) 3.69 (1.59, 8.58), while blacks' odds of discrimination in health care visits versus whites was 2.00 [1.06, 3.74]. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) women had higher odds of reporting sexual harassment (2.16 [1.06, 4.40]) and violence (2.71 [1.43, 5.16]) against themselves or female family members than non-LGBTQ women. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that discrimination and harassment are widely experienced by women across multiple domains of their lives, particularly those who are a racial/ethnic minority or LGBTQ. Further policy and programmatic efforts beyond current legal protections for women are needed to meaningfully reduce these negative experiences, as they impact women's health care and their lives overall. SN - 1475-6773 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31663120/Gender_discrimination_in_the_United_States:_Experiences_of_women_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13217 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -