Cyclodextrin-based sorbents for solid phase extraction.J Chromatogr A. 2020 Jan 04; 1609:460654.JC
Cyclodestrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides well-known for their ability to form host-guest inclusion complexes with properly sized compounds. They have been used for decades as chiral selectors as well as drug delivery systems within the frameworks of separation science and pharmaceutical science. More recently, their use has been extended to the field of extractive science under the stimulus of additional advantageous characteristics, such as low-price, negligible environmental impact, non-toxicity, as arising from the fact that natural CDs are starch degradation products. To abate their solubility in water and generate novel sorbents for solid phase extraction, the following approaches have been employed: (i) immobilization onto inert materials (silica, attapulgite, etc.); (ii) immobilization onto nanomaterials (magnetic nanoparticles, titanium oxide, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, etc.); (iii) polymerisation with specific cross-linkers to form the so-called CD-based nanosponges. Particularly promising are these last ones for their selectivity, mesoporous structure, insolubility in aqueous media and good dispersibility. This review offers a concise overview on the state of art and future prospects of CDs in this important sector of the analytical chemistry, offering a critical perspective of the most significant applications.