Zika virus: an emerging challenge to public health worldwide.Can J Microbiol. 2020 Feb; 66(2):87-98.CJ
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from Zika forest, Uganda, in 1947. Since its inception, major and minor outbreaks have been documented from several parts of world. Aedes spp. mosquitoes are the primary vectors of ZIKV, but the virus can also be transmitted through sexual practices, materno-fetal transmission, and blood transfusion. The clinical presentations of symptomatic ZIKV infections are similar to dengue and chikungunya, including fever, headache, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and rash. ZIKV often causes mild illness in the majority of cases, but in some instances, it is linked with congenital microcephaly and autoimmune disorders like Guillain-Barré syndrome. The recent Indian ZIKV outbreak suggests that the virus is circulating in the South East Asian region and may cause new outbreaks in future. At present, no specific vaccines or antivirals are available to treat ZIKV, so management and control of ZIKV infections rely mostly on preventive measures.