[Inborn errors of high-density lipoprotein metabolism].Internist (Berl) 2019; 60(12):1311-1318I
Both low and very high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and shorten life expectancy. Low and high levels of HDL‑C are often caused by underlying diseases, lifestyle or medication, which should primarily be excluded. Much less frequently, monogenic diseases due to mutations in the APOA1, ABCA1 and LCAT genes are the cause of very low or unmeasurable HDL‑C levels or in the CETP, LIPC and SCARB1 genes for very high HDL‑C values. Genetic and detailed biochemical diagnostics should be considered, especially in cases of absolute HDL deficiency, early onset ASCVD or the presence of clinical symptoms or laboratory values characteristic for deficiencies of apolipoprotein A‑I (ApoA-I), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) or Tangier disease. These included corneal opacities, xanthomas, large tonsils, hepatomegaly, peripheral neuropathy, proteinuria, anemia or thrombocytopenia. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene should also be considered in familial amyloidosis. There is no specific treatment for monogenic HDL diseases. Cholesterol and blood pressure lowering are indicated for the prevention of cardiovascular and renal complications.