Rivaroxaban polymeric amorphous solid dispersions: Moisture-induced thermodynamic phase behavior and intermolecular interactions.Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2019 Dec; 145:98-112.EJ
The present study evaluates the physical stability and intermolecular interactions of Rivaroxaban (RXB) amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) in polymeric carriers via thermodynamic modelling and molecular simulations. Specifically, the Flory-Huggins (FH) lattice solution theory was used to construct thermodynamic phase diagrams of RXB ASDs in four commonly used polymeric carriers (i.e. copovidone, coPVP, povidone, PVP, Soluplus, SOL and hypromellose acetate succinate, HPMCAS), which were stored under 0%, 60% and 75% relative humidity (RH) conditions. In order to verify the phase boundaries predicted by FH modelling (i.e. truly amorphous zone, amorphous-amorphous demixing zones and amorphous-API recrystallization zones), samples of ASDs were examined via polarized light microscopy after storage for up to six months at various RH conditions. Results showed a good agreement between the theoretical and the experimental approaches (i.e. coPVP and PVP resulted in less physically-stable ASDs compared to SOL and HPMCAS) indicating that the proposed FH-based modelling may be a useful tool in predicting long-term physical stability in high humidity conditions. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed in order to interpret the observed differences in physical stability. Results, which were verified via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), suggested the formation of similar intermolecular interactions in all cases, indicating that the interaction with moisture water plays a more crucial role in ASD physical stability compared to the formation of intermolecular interactions between ASD components.