Mining and genomic characterization of resistance to tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), and Fusarium head blight in Watkins core collection of wheat landraces.BMC Plant Biol. 2019 Nov 08; 19(1):480.BP
In the late 1920s, A. E. Watkins collected about 7000 landrace cultivars (LCs) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from 32 different countries around the world. Among which 826 LCs remain viable and could be a valuable source of superior/favorable alleles to enhance disease resistance in wheat. In the present study, a core set of 121 LCs, which captures the majority of the genetic diversity of Watkins collection, was evaluated for identifying novel sources of resistance against tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), and Fusarium Head Blight (FHB).
A diverse response was observed in 121 LCs for all three diseases. The majority of LCs were moderately susceptible to susceptible to tan spot Ptr race 1 (84%) and FHB (96%) whereas a large number of LCs were resistant or moderately resistant against tan spot Ptr race 5 (95%) and SNB (54%). Thirteen LCs were identified in this study could be a valuable source for multiple resistance to tan spot Ptr races 1 and 5, and SNB, and another five LCs could be a potential source for FHB resistance. GWAS analysis was carried out using disease phenotyping score and 8807 SNPs data of 118 LCs, which identified 30 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) with -log10 (p-value) > 3.0. Ten, five, and five genomic regions were found to be associated with resistance to tan spot Ptr race 1, race 5, and SNB, respectively in this study. In addition to Tsn1, several novel genomic regions Q.Ts1.sdsu-4BS and Q.Ts1.sdsu-5BS (tan spot Ptr race 1) and Q.Ts5.sdsu-1BL, Q.Ts5.sdsu-2DL, Q.Ts5.sdsu-3AL, and Q.Ts5.sdsu-6BL (tan spot Ptr race 5) were also identified. Our results indicate that these putative genomic regions contain several genes that play an important role in plant defense mechanisms.
Our results suggest the existence of valuable resistant alleles against leaf spot diseases in Watkins LCs. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tan spot and SNB resistance along with LCs harboring multiple disease resistance could be useful for future wheat breeding.