Re-evaluating the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in 73 Gavi countries: a modelling study.Lancet Glob Health. 2019 12; 7(12):e1664-e1674.LG
Previous studies have found rotavirus vaccination to be highly cost-effective in low-income countries. However, updated evidence is now available for several inputs (ie, rotavirus disease mortality rates, rotavirus age distributions, vaccine timeliness, and vaccine efficacy by duration of follow-up), new rotavirus vaccines have entered the market, vaccine prices have decreased, and cost-effectiveness thresholds have been re-examined. We aimed to provide updated cost-effectiveness estimates to inform national decisions about the new introduction and current use of rotavirus vaccines in Gavi countries.
We calculated the potential costs and effects of rotavirus vaccination for ten successive birth cohorts in 73 countries previously and currently eligible for Gavi support, compared with no vaccination. We used a deterministic cohort model to calculate numbers of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, outpatient visits, hospitalisations, and deaths between birth and 5 years, with and without rotavirus vaccination. We calculated treatment costs from the government and societal perspectives. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (discounted US$ per disability-adjusted life-year averted). Country-specific model input parameters were based on the scientific literature, published meta-analyses, and international databases. We ran deterministic and probabilistic uncertainty analyses.
Over the period 2018-27, rotavirus vaccination has the potential to prevent nearly 600 000 deaths in Gavi countries. Averted outpatient visits and hospitalisations could lead to treatment savings of approximately $484·1 million from the government perspective and $878·0 million from the societal perspective. The discounted dollars per disability-adjusted life-year averted has a very high probability (>90%) of being less than 0·5 times the gross domestic product per capita in 54 countries, and less than 1·0 times gross domestic product per capita in 63 countries.
Rotavirus vaccination continues to represent good value for money across most Gavi countries despite lower rotavirus mortality estimates and more stringent willingness-to-pay thresholds.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.