The contribution of enrichment and fortification to nutrient intake of women.J Am Diet Assoc. 1988 Oct; 88(10):1237-42, 1245.JA
A volunteer group of 162 women aged 25 to 49 years was recruited from three suburban supermarkets in central New York state. The women completed 3-day food records, which were analyzed for total nutrient intake and contribution of eight nutrients from three sources: (a) nutrients naturally present in food, (b) enriched/fortified foods with a standard of identity (FF + SI), and (c) fortified foods without standards of identity (FF-SI). Subjects were placed into study groups of high-, moderate-, and low-fortifiers on the basis of frequency of intake of highly fortified foods (FF-SI) which, unlike FF + SI, are not staple foods and may represent selective dietary nutrient addition by the consumer. For all groups, mean intakes of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins A and C were greater than 100% of the RDAs without nutrient addition. Mean thiamin intake met the RDA only when the nutrient addition from FF + SI was included. Mean intakes of iron, calcium, and vitamin D were all below the RDA even when all sources of intake were included. No significant differences between study groups were found for total nutrient intake. With the exceptions of vitamin C, vitamin D, and calcium, high- and moderate-fortifiers had significantly greater (p less than .01) nutrient intake from fortification. Low-fortifiers had significantly greater (p less than .05) intake from naturally occurring vitamins A and C than high-fortifiers.