[Posttraumatic and postoperative shoulder stiffness : Trauma, rotator cuff reconstruction, instability operations and shoulder arthroplasty].Unfallchirurg 2019; 122(12):925-933U
Apart from primary or idiopathic frozen shoulder, the secondary form of glenohumeral stiffness can also develop after trauma or surgery. The cause for these secondary forms of restricted range of motion can be distinguished into intra-articular and extra-articular factors. Posttraumatic stiffness can develop after minor or major trauma to the bony or soft tissues of the shoulder girdle. After minor trauma the course and clinical presentation is similar to the primary form as pathomorphological correlates are often not detectable; therefore, treatment protocols are adapted according to those for primary shoulder stiffness. Shoulder stiffness after major trauma is mainly caused by scarring and adhesions of gliding structures and often necessitates surgical release if resolution under conservative treatment fails. Postoperative shoulder stiffness is a common problem after rotator cuff surgery or fracture fixation, even though incidences vary widely between different surgical procedures. Apart from the abovementioned scarring, overstuffing implants or tightening of soft tissue structures can lead to restricted range of motion. Stiffness after shoulder arthroplasty is rare and should prompt further diagnostic work-up to differentiate implant, surgery or patient-specific causes. Furthermore, an inflammatory shoulder stiffness similar to the primary or minor trauma form can develop after surgery. Reviewing the literature, shoulder stiffness has been reported most often after rotator cuff reconstruction surgery, followed by fracture fixation surgery, instability operations and lastly shoulder arthroplasty.