Closed loop automated oxygen control in neonates-A review.Acta Paediatr 2019AP
Neonates frequently require supplementary oxygen but may develop complications if the oxygen saturation is outside the target range. This review aimed to determine whether the algorithms used in closed loop automated oxygen control systems influenced their efficacy and whether use of the systems reduced relevant, long-term neonatal complications.
A literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. The search terms were 'closed loop' or 'automat*', 'oxygen' and 'neonat*'.
Eighteen studies were identified: sixteen comparison clinical studies, an observational study and an animal study. Overall, closed loop automated oxygen control was associated with an increased percentage of time spent within the target oxygen saturation range and there were fewer manual adjustments to the inspired oxygen concentration when compared with manual oxygen control. The systems were effective in infants on non-invasive respiratory support or mechanically ventilated, but no study included term-born infants. No long-term data were available to determine if complications of oxygen toxicity were reduced.
Closed loop automated oxygen control has been shown in short term trials including preterm and low birth weight infants to improve target saturation achievement. Whether long-term outcomes will be improved with their use requires investigation.