DEFINITION OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW WITH META-ANALYSIS.Arq Gastroenterol. 2019 Oct-Dec; 56(4):425-430.AG
Vitamin D deficiency is being recognized as a pandemic due to the volume of people affected by the deficiency and the number of illnesses generated or stimulated by the deficiency. There is a lack of consensus in the literature on what is considered vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D].
This review brings together the most common levels of 25(OH)D found in healthy schoolchildren and what is considered deficient.
This systematic review was based on the literature accessed from the electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE. The following descriptors were used in English, Portuguese and Spanish: "Vitamin D"; "Vitamin D deficiency"; "Nutritional Supplements" as well as all their synonyms. The meta-analysis was performed considering the random model. Inclusion criteria: healthy children aged 6 to 12 years, studies that had vitamin D levels, defined vitamin D deficiency.
Of the 191 potentially eligible articles, only six articles were included, with 2618 students in total. The mean value of 25(OH)D was estimated at 18.11 ng/mL with 95% confidence interval. Among the articles found, three were considered deficiency levels below 20 ng/mL, one considered below 18 ng/mL, another below 15 ng/mL, and the latter below 11 ng/ mL. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the articles was 48.6%, 7%, 98%, 64.63%, 19.5%, 28.4%, according to each classification used by the same.
The most common definition in the literature of 25(OH)D deficiency in schoolchildren was at levels below 20 ng/mL. No side effects have been reported in studies that used fortification and/or vitamin D supplementation. Daily supplementation is more effective than seasonal supplementation. However, more studies are needed to define what can be considered as optimal levels of 25(OH)D in children.