Gain and loss events in the evolution of the apolipoprotein family in vertebrata.BMC Evol Biol. 2019 11 13; 19(1):209.BE
Various apolipoproteins widely distributed among vertebrata play key roles in lipid metabolism and have a direct correlation with human diseases as diagnostic markers. However, the evolutionary progress of apolipoproteins in species remains unclear. Nine human apolipoproteins and well-annotated genome data of 30 species were used to identify 210 apolipoprotein family members distributed among species from fish to humans. Our study focused on the evolution of nine exchangeable apolipoproteins (ApoA-I/II/IV/V, ApoC-I~IV and ApoE) from Chondrichthyes, Holostei, Teleostei, Amphibia, Sauria (including Aves), Prototheria, Marsupialia and Eutheria.
In this study, we reported the overall distribution and the frequent gain and loss evolutionary events of apolipoprotein family members in vertebrata. Phylogenetic trees of orthologous apolipoproteins indicated evident divergence between species evolution and apolipoprotein phylogeny. Successive gain and loss events were found by evaluating the presence and absence of apolipoproteins in the context of species evolution. For example, only ApoA-I and ApoA-IV occurred in cartilaginous fish as ancient apolipoproteins. ApoA-II, ApoE, and ApoC-I/ApoC-II were found in Holostei, Coelacanthiformes, and Teleostei, respectively, but the latter three apolipoproteins were absent from Aves. ApoC-I was also absent from Cetartiodactyla. The apolipoprotein ApoC-III emerged in terrestrial animals, and ApoC-IV first arose in Eutheria. The results indicate that the order of the emergence of apolipoproteins is most likely ApoA-I/ApoA-IV, ApoE, ApoA-II, ApoC-I/ApoC-II, ApoA-V, ApoC-III, and ApoC-IV.
This study reveals not only the phylogeny of apolipoprotein family members in species from Chondrichthyes to Eutheria but also the occurrence and origin of new apolipoproteins. The broad perspective of gain and loss events and the evolutionary scenario of apolipoproteins across vertebrata provide a significant reference for the research of apolipoprotein function and related diseases.