Metabolite profiling of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. young and mature leaves at different harvest ages using 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach.Sci Rep. 2019 11 14; 9(1):16766.SR
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees. is considered as the herb of the future due to its precious chemical compounds, andrographolide (ANDRO), neoandrographolide (NAG) and 14-deoxyandrographolide (DAG). This study aims to profile the metabolites in young and mature leaf at six different harvest ages using 1HNMR-based metabolomics combined with multivariate data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated noticeable and clear discrimination between young and mature leaves. A comparison of the leaves stage indicated that young leaves were separated from mature leaves due to its larger quantity of ANDRO, NAG, DAG, glucose and sucrose. These similar metabolites are also responsible for the PCA separation into five clusters representing the harvest age at 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 weeks of leaves extract. Loading plots revealed that most of the ANDRO and NAG signals were present when the plant reached at the pre-flowering stage or 18 weeks after sowing (WAS). As a conclusion, A. paniculata young leaves at pre-flowering harvest age were found to be richer in ANDRO, NAG and DAG compared to mature leaves while glucose and choline increased with harvest age. Therefore, young leaves of A. paniculata should be harvested at 18 WAS in order to produce superior quality plant extracts for further applications by the herbal, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.