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Plant Foods, Antioxidant Biomarkers, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: A Review of the Evidence.
Adv Nutr. 2019 11 01; 10(Suppl_4):S404-S421.AN

Abstract

Although a high intake of plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes has been recommended for chronic disease prevention, it has been unclear what is the optimal amount of intake of these foods and whether specific subtypes are particularly beneficial. The evidence from several recently published meta-analyses on plant foods and antioxidants and various health outcomes is reviewed as well as more recently published studies. In meta-analyses of prospective studies, inverse associations were observed between intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts and the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease overall, total cancer, and all-cause mortality. The strongest reductions in risk were observed at an intake of 800 g/d for fruits and vegetables, 225 g/d for whole grains, and 15-20 g/d for nuts, respectively. Whole-grain and nut consumption was also inversely associated with mortality from respiratory disease, infections, and diabetes. Stronger and more linear inverse associations were observed between blood concentrations of antioxidants (vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E) and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality than for dietary intake. Most studies that have since been published have been consistent with these results; however, further studies are needed on subtypes of plant foods and less common causes of death. These results strongly support dietary recommendations to increase intake of plant foods, and suggest optimal intakes for chronic disease prevention may be ∼800 g/d for intakes of fruits and vegetables, 225 g/d for whole grains, and 15-20 g/d for nuts. Diets high in plant foods could potentially prevent several million premature deaths each year if adopted globally.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. Department of Nutrition, Bjørknes University College, Oslo, Norway. Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31728499

Citation

Aune, Dagfinn. "Plant Foods, Antioxidant Biomarkers, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: a Review of the Evidence." Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), vol. 10, no. Suppl_4, 2019, pp. S404-S421.
Aune D. Plant Foods, Antioxidant Biomarkers, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: A Review of the Evidence. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(Suppl_4):S404-S421.
Aune, D. (2019). Plant Foods, Antioxidant Biomarkers, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: A Review of the Evidence. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 10(Suppl_4), S404-S421. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz042
Aune D. Plant Foods, Antioxidant Biomarkers, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: a Review of the Evidence. Adv Nutr. 2019 11 1;10(Suppl_4):S404-S421. PubMed PMID: 31728499.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Plant Foods, Antioxidant Biomarkers, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: A Review of the Evidence. A1 - Aune,Dagfinn, PY - 2018/08/28/received PY - 2019/03/15/revised PY - 2019/03/28/accepted PY - 2019/11/16/entrez PY - 2019/11/16/pubmed PY - 2020/8/29/medline KW - antioxidants KW - cohort KW - fruits KW - legumes KW - meta-analysis KW - mortality KW - nuts KW - prospective studies KW - vegetables KW - whole grains SP - S404 EP - S421 JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 10 IS - Suppl_4 N2 - Although a high intake of plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes has been recommended for chronic disease prevention, it has been unclear what is the optimal amount of intake of these foods and whether specific subtypes are particularly beneficial. The evidence from several recently published meta-analyses on plant foods and antioxidants and various health outcomes is reviewed as well as more recently published studies. In meta-analyses of prospective studies, inverse associations were observed between intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts and the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease overall, total cancer, and all-cause mortality. The strongest reductions in risk were observed at an intake of 800 g/d for fruits and vegetables, 225 g/d for whole grains, and 15-20 g/d for nuts, respectively. Whole-grain and nut consumption was also inversely associated with mortality from respiratory disease, infections, and diabetes. Stronger and more linear inverse associations were observed between blood concentrations of antioxidants (vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E) and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality than for dietary intake. Most studies that have since been published have been consistent with these results; however, further studies are needed on subtypes of plant foods and less common causes of death. These results strongly support dietary recommendations to increase intake of plant foods, and suggest optimal intakes for chronic disease prevention may be ∼800 g/d for intakes of fruits and vegetables, 225 g/d for whole grains, and 15-20 g/d for nuts. Diets high in plant foods could potentially prevent several million premature deaths each year if adopted globally. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31728499/Plant_Foods_Antioxidant_Biomarkers_and_the_Risk_of_Cardiovascular_Disease_Cancer_and_Mortality:_A_Review_of_the_Evidence_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/advances/nmz042 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -